Home grammar V-(으)ㄴ 지 korean time expression grammar V-은지/ㄴ지

V-(으)ㄴ 지 korean time expression grammar V-은지/ㄴ지

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V-(으)ㄴ 지 Korean time expression grammar V-은지/ㄴ지

‘-(으)ㄴ 지’ attaches after a verb stem. ‘은/ㄴ’ is an ending of a word that makes the preceding word function as an adnominal phrase and indicates an event or action that has occurred in the past.

‘지’ is a bound noun used to indicate the duration of time from the occurrence of an incident until the present moment.

In other words, it is used to indicate that a certain time has passed since a certain act mentioned in the preceding statement is done.

Normally, time expression is followed. 보통, 이 표현 ‘시간 표현’이 오고요.

It is followed by verbs indicating the passage of time, such as ‘되다 (become), 지나다 (pass), 넘다 (exceed), 흐르다 (pass), 경과하다 (pass).’

Those verbs are usually used ‘past tense’ as it is usually used to mean that time has already passed.

Vowel verb end/ ㄹ end ㄴ지 Consonant verb end 은지

전화하다: to call

전화한지 먹다: to eat 은지
사다: to buy 산지 듣다: to listen/hear 들은지
오다: to come 온지 걷다: to walk 걸은지
마시다: to drink 마신지 읽다: to read 읽은지
만들다: to make/create 만든지 깎다: to peel, to cut 은지

V-(으)ㄴ 지 example

Let’s look at some examples.

Minjo wonders when Nauna came to Korea. So she asks: 나으나 씨는 한국에 언제 왔어요? Nauna, when did you come to Korea?

Nauna replies: 2018년 여름에 왔어요. I came in the summer of 2018.

Three years have passed since Nauna came to Korea. So Minjo says this: 그럼 이제 한국에 온 지 3년이 됐네요. So it’s been three years since you came to Korea.

The 온 지 is used as an example of grammar in this conversation. ‘온 지 3년이 됐네요.’

‘온 지’ is a combination of the verb ‘오다’ and ‘-ㄴ 지’, after that ‘3년 (three years)’ which is time expression is followed. And then ‘됐어요’ which is the past tense of ‘되다 (become) is followed.

Nauna wants to talk about how much time has passed since she came to Korea.

In this case, you can use ‘ㄴ 지’ after the verb ‘오다.’ And use ‘time expression’ and the verb ‘되다’ after that.

Let’s look at the next example. 

Nauna says: ‘점심을 먹은 지 한 시간이 지났어요.’ It’s been an hour since I had lunch.

Here, ‘먹은 지’ is a combination of the verb ‘먹다’ and ‘-은 지’after that ‘한 시간 (one hour)’ which is time expression is followed. And then ‘지났어요’ which is the past tense of ‘지나다 (pass) is followed

In this case, you can use ‘은 지’ after the verb ‘먹다.’ And use ‘time expression’ and the verb ‘지나으나다’ after that.

‘먹은 지 한 시간이 지났어요.’ (It’s been an hour since I had.)

Negative expression of ‘-(으)ㄴ 지.

First, use ‘안’ negation, you can say ‘안 Verb-(으)ㄴ 지’, or ‘Verb-지 않은 지.’

For example, let’s look at the positive sentence.

비가 온 지 한 달이 됐어요. It has been a month since it rained.

First, use ‘안’ negation, you can say ‘안’ in front of ‘온 지.’

비가 안 온 지 한 달이 됐어요. It’s been a month since it hasn’t rained.

If you use ‘-지 않은 지’ expression,

you can say ‘비가 오지 않은 지 한 달이 됐어요.’ (It’s been a month since it hasn’t rained.)

 ‘못’ negation

First, use ‘‘ negation, you can say ‘못 Verb-(으)ㄴ 지’, or ‘Verb-지 못한 지.’

Let’s look at some examples.

여행을 간 지 2년이 넘었어요. It’s been over 2 years since I’ve been travelling.

First, use ‘못’ negation, you can say ‘못’ in front of ‘간 지.’

여행을 못 간 지 2년이 넘었어요. It’s been over two years since I could not go on a trip.

If you use ‘-지 못한 지’ expression,

you can say ‘여행을 가지 못한 지 2 년이 넘었어요.’ It’s been over two years since I could not go on a trip.

Depending on the situation, ‘positive expression’ has the same meaning as ‘negative expression’. For example, in the case of the positive sentence, ‘비가 온 지 한 달이 됐어요.

This sentence can be interpreted in two ways.

First, it’s June now. It rained in May. And then ‘it’s been raining since then.’

Second, it’s June and it rained in May. But this time, it can also mean ‘it hasn’t rained since May.’

In this case, it has the same meaning as the negative expression ‘비가 안 온 지 1달이 됐어요. (It’s been a month since it hasn’t rained.)’

This is not always the case, but depending on the situation, a positive expression can have two meanings.

This time, we will learn about ‘particles’ after ‘time expression’.

이/가

First, the proposition ‘이/가’ after ‘time expression’ can be omitted. For example, ‘한국에 온 지 10년이 됐어요. (It has been 10 years since I came to Korea.)’

In this sentence, you can omit the particle ‘이’ after ’10 years.’ So you can say ‘한국에 온 지 10년 됐어요.’

이나

Second, you can use ‘이나’ after time expression.

It is used to indicate that the amount of something is larger than expected. For example, ‘한국에 온 지 10년이나 됐어요. (It’s been 10 years since I came to Korea.)

‘이나’ is used after ’10년’ to say that the period is longer than you expect.

밖에

On the other hand, if the period is shorter than the speaker thinks then use ‘밖에.’ Use negation expression after ‘밖에’. For example, ‘한국에 온 지 한 달밖에 안 됐어요. (It’s been only a month since I came to Korea.)

‘밖에’ is used after’한 달’ to say that the period is shorter than you think. And the negative expression ‘안 됐어요’ is followed. If you say ‘한국에 온 지 한 달밖에 됐어요’. This is wrong.

V-은지/ㄴ지 conjugation

Now let’s look at the combination information.

은 지 grammar

When a verb stem has the final consonant, ‘-은 지’ is used.

먹다

When you look at the verb 먹다, remove ‘다’. Then there is the final consonant before ‘다’. ‘은 지’ is used after that. So you can say ‘먹은 지.’

읽다

When you look at the verb 읽다, remove ‘다’. Then there is the final consonant before ‘다’. ‘은 지’ is used after that. So you can say ‘읽은 지.’

-ㄴ 지 grammar

When a verb stem does not have the final consonant, ‘-ㄴ 지’ is used.

오다

When you look at the verb 오다, remove ‘다’. Then there is no final consonant before ‘다.’ ‘ㄴ 지’ is used after that. So you can say ‘온 지.’

가다

When you look at the verb 가다, remove ‘다’. Then there is no final consonant before ‘다.’ ‘ㄴ 지’ is used after that. So you can say ‘간 지.’

ㄹ irregular verb

When a verb stem ends with the final consonant ‘ㄹ’ delete ‘ㄹ’ and attach ‘-ㄴ 지’. When you look at the verb 만들다, remove ‘다’. Then the final consonant is ‘ㄹ’ before ‘다’. Then, delete ‘ㄹ’ and then attach ‘ㄴ 지’. So you can say ‘만든 지.’

놀다

Let’s look at the verb 놀다. Remove ‘다’. Then the final consonant is ‘ㄹ’ before ‘다’. Then, delete ‘ㄹ’ and then attach ‘ㄴ 지’. So you can say ‘논 지.’

V-(으)ㄴ 지  practice.

Here are some scattered words. Now let’s make a sentence using these words.

민조 씨가 집으로, 가다, 한 시간이 넘었는데요? It’s been over an hour since Minjo went home?

= 민조 씨가 집으로 간 지 한 시간이 넘었는데요?

‘간 지’ is a combination of the verb ‘가다’ and ‘-ㄴ 지.’

서울에, 살다, 이제 두 달 됐어요. It has been now two months since I lived in Seoul.

= 서울에 산 지 이제 두 달 됐어요.

‘산 지’ is a combination of the verb ‘살다 and ‘ㄴ 지’ after removing ‘ㄹ’

담배를, 끊다, 세 달이 지났어요. It has been three months since I quit smoking.

= 담배를 끊은 지 세 달이 지났어요.

‘끊은 지’ is a combination of the verb ‘끊다’ and ‘-은 지.’

V-(으)ㄴ 지 Summary

When a verb stem has the final consonant, ‘‘-은 지’ is used. ‘먹다’ becomes ‘먹은 지’.

When a verb stem does not have the final consonant, ‘-ㄴ 지’ is used. So ‘오다’ becomes ‘온 지.’

When a verb stem ends with the final consonant ‘ㄹ’ delete ‘ㄹ’ and add ‘-ㄴ 지’. ‘만들다’ becomes ‘만든 지’.

V-(으)ㄴ 지 korean grammar
V-(으)ㄴ 지

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