korean verb
Basic korean vocabulary

Basic Korean verbs

This is the first part of the Most Basic Korean verbs Series. In this article, you are going to learn the Korean basic words-verbs with their pronunciation. Later you can learn Korean Phrases related to these verbs. These verbs are the most common verbs.

What is a verb?

Verb( 동사) represents the movement, actions or process of the subject, and acts a predicate in a sentence. Verbs are classified into intransitive verbs and transitive verbs depending on the subject that influences its movement and action. Verbs classified into main verbs and auxiliary verbs depending on the function which does in the sentence or classified into regular verbs and irregular verbs according to the types of verbal conjugation.
The most distinctive characteristic of the Korean verbs is that they have various verbal conjugation. Conjugation means the changing form of the verb as various endings are added on the verb stems, and verbs will have new features accordingly. For example-
먹다 to eat
먹 -(stem) + -다(basic form, dictionary ending)
는다 [declarative] final ending
-으면 ([condition] relation connective ending)
었다 ([past] tense prefinal ending)
-으시‐ 다 ([subject honorific] prefinal ending)
– 게 하다 ([causative] ending)
– 게 되다 [passive] ending)
– 지 아니하다 ([negation] ending)
‐ 는(adnominal ending)
– 음(noun ending)

Verbs can represent sentence ending, conjunction, time, aspect, polite-
ness, causative, passive and negation through the verbal conjugation thus, and a way of representing such is very different from English. Also, verbs can be modified by adverbial phrases, and the main verb always comes at the end of a sentence.

korean basic words-verbs
Basic korean vocabulary

hada verbs korean

(hada) 하다 means to do and it is a dictionary form. 하 is the verb stem after erasing 다. Here is a list of how Korean hada verbs are used.

  • Informal low is 해 (He)
  • informal high is 해요 (Heyo)
  • formal low is 한다 (Handa)
  • formal high is 합니다 (Hamnida)
  • informal low is 했어 (Hesuh)
  • informal high is 했어요 (Hesuheoyo)
  • formal low is 했다 (Hetttaa)
  • formal high is 했습니다 (Hessumnida)
  • informal low is 할 거야 (Hal keoya)
  • informal high is 할 거예요 (Hal keoyeyo)
  • formal low is 할 거다 (Hal keoda)
  • formal high is 할 겁니다 (Hal keomnida)

Korean hada verbs

EnglishKoreanPronunciation
be있다, 존재하다itta, jonchhe-hada
have있다, 가지다itta, khajida
Do하다hada
study공부하다khongbu-hada
to marry결혼하다khyeron-hada
answer대답하다thedapada
visit방문하다phangmun-hada
introduce소개하다soge-hada
reply대답하다thedap- hada
arrive도착하다dochhak hada
To love사랑하다sarang hada
prepare준비하다chunbi hada
compare비교하다phigyo hada
travel여행하다yaheng hada
Choose, pick고르다, 선택하다, 뽑다khoruda, santhek hada, pobda
drive운전하다unjan hada
Confirm확인하다hwakin hada
wish원하다, 바라다won hada, pharada
satisfy만족하다manjok hada
plan계획하다khyeheak hada
depend의존하다wejon hada
See, Look, ask구하다khu hada
fail / Error실패하다silfe hada
Block, obstruct, close막다makda
Neglect, leave방치하다phangchhi hada
Inspect, check점검하다chhamgam hada
To thank감사하다khamsa hada
notice의식하다wesik hada
Face마주하다maju hada
wonder궁금하다kungkum hada
assume, presume, suppose가정하다khajang hada
Discuss, consult의논하다wenohada
Suppose,Think생각하다sengak hada
increase, rise증가하다chhunga hada
apply신청하다sinchhang hada
Describe묘사하다myosa hada
Refuse거절하다khajal hada
warn경고하다khyengo hada
agree with동의하다dongwe hada
estimate, calculate추정하다chhujang hada
add추가하다chhuga hada
remember기억하다kieok hada
suggest제안하다jeaan hada
change변하다phyeon hada
speak말하다mal hada
continue계속하다khyesok hada
expect기대하다kide hada
lose잃다irhda
talk말하다, 이야기하다malhada
decide결심하다khyeolsim hada
Involve수반하다, 포함하다suban hada, foham hada
let놓아두다noha duda
allow허락하다harak hada
offer제공하다chhekong hada
lead인도하다indo hada
understand이해하다ihe hada
pay지불하다chhibul hada
like좋아하다chhoha hada
include포함하다phoham hada
need필요하다firyo hada
mean의미하다wemi hada
start시작하다sijak hada
want원하다won hada
provide , supply, furnish제공하다chhegong hada
work일하다il hada
happen있다, 발생하다itta, falseng hada
use사용하다sayong hada
try노력하다noryak hada
Get, obtain얻다, 입수하다eodda, ipsu hada
set놓다nohda
hold잡다chhabda
know알다alda
seem ~처럼 보이다chharam phoida
put놓다, 두다nohda, duda
make만들다mandulda
leave떠나다teonada
see보다foda
follow따라가다tarakhada
ask묻다mutda
run달리다thallida
give주다juda
look보다foda
find발견하다, 찾다phalgyan hada, chhajda
become되다doida
write쓰다suda
Come오다oda
go가다khada
take가지고 가다khajigo khada
believe믿다mitda
meet만나다maannada
live살다salda
feel느끼다nukkida
help도와주다thowa juda
move움직이다umjikida
cost(값이나 비용이)들다kapsina phiyong ee thulda
remain남다namda
explain설명하다salmyng hada
buy사다saadaa
send보내다phoneda

Korean verbs are divided into two types. They are main verb and auxiliary verb

Main verb and auxiliary verb

Auxiliary verbs(보조동사) refer to verbs that come after the main verb to add aspectual or grammatical meanings to the main verb.

민서는 뉴욕에 가보았다. Minseo has been to Newyork.
가 is the main verb and 보았다 is the auxiliary verb. In this case, ‘보았다 ‐보다 means ‘attempt, experience’, but not to see’. Therefore, ‘가 보았다 ‘ means ‘have been there/have experienced, not ‘something that someone went and saw’.

Auxiliary verbs are accompanied with connective endings such as ‘- 아, 어, 게, 지, 고, 아이야, -기는, 는가, (이)가, (으)ㄹ까’ since they
always come after the main verb. And just like regular verbs, auxiliary verbs can be freely combined with the present-tense prefinal ending, 는 imperative ending – 아/어라 or propositive ending -자’.

아/어 가다/오다, -고 있다/계시다

These verbs are used when some action is in progress 진행.
그는 지금 저녁을 다 먹어 간다. He has almost eaten dinner now.
이제 날이 밝아 온다. Now, the whole sky is bright.
민서는 점심 먹고 있다. Min-Seo is eating lunch.

아/어 버리다

Used to express completion(완료) + Regret(아쉬움)/ Good riddance(속 시원함): -아어 버리다

이제야 빚을 다 갚아 버렸다. I finally paid off my debts.
주식 투자에 실패에서 재산을 다 날려 버렸다. He lost all his fortune in the stock market.

아/어 내다, 고 나다


This term is used to indicate completion(완료) and fulfilment (수행). For example-

드디어 ‘토지’라는 소설을 다 읽어 냈다. I eventually read off the novel Toji(The Land).
저녁을 먹고 나서 우리는 TV를 보았다. We ate our dinner, then we watched television.

아어 놓다/두다

-아어 놓다/두다
This teem is used to show possession(보유) + completion(완료). For example-

준서는 자기가 맡은 일을 잘해 놓았다. Jun-Seo has done his job well.
내 말을 잘 들어 두어라. / You mark what I say.

아어 보다

-아어 보다
This term is used to show experience(경험) and try(시도).
너 한국 김치 먹어 보았니? Have you ever tried Korean food Kimchi?
사랑한다’는 말을 들어 보았습니까? Have you ever heard the expression “I love you”?

아어 주다(드리다)

-아어 주다(드리다)
This term is used when offering some kind of help(도움) and service(봉사).

민서는 나를 위해 문을 열어 주었다. Min-Seo opened the door for me.
나는 어머니가 저녁 준비를 하는 것을 도와 드렸습니다. I helped my mother to get dinner.

지 않다

-지 않다
This term is used to show negation(부정) and the intention of the speaker(화자의 의도). For example-
준서는 피자를 먹지 않았다. Jun-Seo did not eat pizza.
그는 일부러 서울에 가지 않았다. He intentionally did not go to Seoul.

지 못하다

지 못하다
This term is used to denote impossibility(불능) and restriction on the situation(상황에 의한 제약). For example-
준서는 피자를 먹지 못했다. Jun-Seo has not eaten pizza.
어제는 홍수가 나서 학교에 오지 못했다. I could not come to school because of the flood.

지 말다

지 말다
This term is used to indicate prohibition(금지) to do something.

마속은 절대 하지 마라. Never take drugs.
술을 너무 많이 먹지 마세요. Don’t drink so much.

아/어야 하다

아/어야 하다
This term is used to indicate inevitability (필연) and emphasis (강조). For example-
이번에는 꼭 승리해야 한다. (We) must win this time.
어떻게 하든, 대학 시험에 합격해야 한다. It requires passing a university entrance exam, one way or another.

게 하다

게 하다
This term is used when someone orders to do something or someone make to do something by another person (시킴). For example-

어머니는 항상 나에게 일기를 쓰게 했다. My mother always made me write a diary.
우유를 많이 마시게하자. Let’s make (him) drink a lot of milk.

기는 하다/ 기도 하다

기는 하다/ 기도 하다
This term is used to show admission(시인) of a person or partial or additional Acknowledge(부분추가 인정) of a person. For example-

그가 잘못했다고 말하기는 했다. He did say he was wrong.
민서가 다시 오겠다고 하기는 했다. Min-Seo did say she would come again.
그녀는 돈이 많다고 하기도 했다. She did say she has much money.

게 되다

게 되다
This term is used to show schedule(예정) and the result(결과). For example-
내일 우리 가족은 경주로 여행을 가게 되었다. My family are going to travel to Gyeongju tomorrow.
사랑을 하게 되면 모두들 시인이 된다. At a touch of love, everyone becomes a poet.

아어 쌓다/대다

아어 쌓다/대다
This grammar is used to show repetition(반복) + emphasis(강조). For example-
학생들이 교실에서 너무 떠들어 쌓는다. The students are being too noisy in the classroom.
갓난애가 끝없이 울어 댔다. The veriest baby was crying endlessly.

(으)ㄹ 만하다

(으)ㄹ 만하다

This term is used to show value(가치) and degree (정도).

한국 김치는 좀 맵기는 하지만 먹을 만하다. Korean Kimchi is a little spicy but edible.
한국에 있는 경주는 한번 가 볼 만하다. Gyeongju in Korea is worth a visit.

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Link 4 – Korean language online

Basic Korean verbs

있다 – 우리 대학에는 기숙사가 있다 Our university has a dormitory.

존재하다 – 신의 존재. the existence of God

하다 – 자원 봉사를 하다. do volunteer work

공부하다 – 열심히 공부하다. study hard

보내 죄수를 감옥에 보냈다. The prisoner(convict) was sent to jail.

여름 방학을 잘 보내요. Have a good summer vacation.

사다 – 아내는 장에 가서 쌀을 팔아서 과일을 샀다. My wife went to the market and sold rice to buy fruit.

설명하다 – 어제 그 사건을 어떻게 나타났어 잘 설명 해봐. How did that incident happen yesterday explain it?

남다 – 예상보다 사람이 적게 와서 밥이 남았다. There were fewer people than I expected, so rice left.

움직이다 – 전원 스위치를 켰더니 기계가 움직이기 시작한다. When the power switch turned on, the machine starts to move.

도와주다 – 네가 좀 도와주어야겠다. I need your assistance/ help.

느끼다 – 아기를 볼 때 사랑하는 마음이 느껴진다. When I see a baby, I feel loved.