basic korean grammar

         Today, we’re going to learn Korean irregular verb ㄹ conjugation ‘ㄹ’ 불규칙 (‘ㄹ’ irregular conjugation) Let’s look at a short conversation first.

Minjo asks:

나은 씨는 어디에 사세요? Naun, where are you living?

Naun replies:

I’m living near my school. 학교 근처에 살아요.

Today’s grammar is in the form of ‘사세요, 살아요.’ Both words are conjugated from the verb ‘살다 (=to live).’

Now let’s find out ‘ㄹ’불규칙

This lesson has four parts:

First of all, we’re looking at when the adjective/verb stem that ends with ‘ㄹ’ meets the verb ending that begins with ‘ㄴ, ㅂ, ㅅ.’

Second, when the final consonant ‘ㄹ’ meets the adjective/verb ending that begins with ‘ㄹ.’

Third, when the ‘ㄹ’ meets the adjective/verb ending that begins with the vowel ‘으.’

At last, we’re going to look at some example sentences.

Let’s begin with when the adjective/verb stem that ends with ‘ㄹ’ meets the verb ending that begins with ‘ㄴ, ㅂ, ㅅ.’

When the final consonant ‘ㄹ’ in the adjective/verb stem meets the verb ending that begins with ㄴ, ㅂ, ㅅ the final consonant ‘ㄹ’ is omitted. The endings remain the same. And when ‘ㄹ’ is omitted, which is called ‘ㄹ탈락. (‘ㄹ’omition, or ‘ㄹ’ drop).

korean irregular verb ㄹ conjugation

The first case is that when the verb ‘살다’ is followed by the ending ‘네요.’

Firstly, remove ‘다’ from ‘살다, and there is the final consonant ‘ㄹ’ in the stem. And, when the verb ending ‘네요’ which begins with ‘ㄴ’ is added after that, the final consonant ‘ㄹ’ in the stem is omitted from ‘살네요.’ And the verb ending ‘ㄴ’ remains. So, it becomes ‘사네요.’

Now We’re going to look at when the verb ‘살다’ is followed by the ending ‘ㅂ니다.’ 

First, remove ‘다’ from ‘살다, and there is the final consonant ‘ㄹ’ in the stem. And, when the verb ending ‘ㅂ니다’ which begins with ‘ㅂ’ is added after that, the final consonant ‘ㄹ’ in the stem is omitted from ‘살ㅂ니다.’ And ‘ㅂ’ becomes the final consonant, so it becomes ‘삽니다.’

The last case is when the verb ‘살다’ is followed by the ending ‘세요.’

Firstly, remove ‘다’ from ‘살다, and there is the final consonant ‘ㄹ’ in the stem. And, when the verb ending ‘세요’ which begins with ‘ㅅ’ is added after that, the final consonant ‘ㄹ’ in the stem is omitted from ‘살세요.’ And the verb ending ‘ㅅ’ remains and becomes 사세요.

When the final consonant ‘ㄹ’ in the adjective/verb stem meets the ending that begins with ‘ㄴ, ㅂ, ㅅ’, ‘ㄹ’ is omitted.

Now, we’re going to look at when the final consonant ‘ㄹ’ meets the adjective/verb ending that begins with ‘ㄹ.’

when the final consonant ‘ㄹ’ in the adjective/verb stem meets the ending that begins with the individual consonant ‘ㄹ,’ the final consonant ‘ㄹ’ is omitted. And the individual consonant ‘ㄹ’ in the ending is used as the final consonant.

Korean irregular verb ㄹ conjugation
Korean irregular verb ㄹ conjugation

 ‘ㄹ’ ending verbs

Below are some of the ending korean verbs.

  • 알다 (to know), 
  • 살다 (to live), 
  • 만들다 (to make), 
  • 놀다 (to play), 
  • 울다 (to cry), 
  • 팔다 (to sell), 
  • 열다 (to open), 
  • 불다 (to blow), 
  • 갈다 (to plough) and etc.

ㄹ ending adjectives

The adjectives that end with ‘ㄹ’ are

  • 멀다 (to be far), 
  • 달다 (to be sweet), 
  • 길다 (to be long), 
  • 둥글다 (to be round), 
  • 어질다 (to be benevolent) and etc.

Korean irregular verbㄹ example sentences

Now let’s practice by looking at more example sentences in Korean.

‘케이크를 만들다+세요’ (You, the cake, to bake/make + 세요)

How would you say it?

‘케이크를 만드세요.’ (Please bake/make the cake.)

‘사과가 달다+네요’ (The apple, to be sweet + 네요)

How would you say it?

‘사과가 다네요.’ (The apple is sweet.)

제 머리가 좀 길다+ㅂ니다 (My hair, a bit, to be long + ㅂ니다)

How would you say it?

‘제 머리가 좀 깁니다.’ (My hair is a bit long.)

‘창문을 열다 + ㄹ까요? (May I, the window, to open + ㄹ까요?)

How would you say it?

‘창문을 열까요?’ (May I open the window?)

Basic Korean conversations

Now, let’s look at short conversations.

Minjo  asks:

“얼준 씨 생일이 언제인지 아세요?” (Do you know when arjun’s birthday is?)

Naun replies:

“네, 9월 20일로 알고 있어요.” (Yes, I think 20th of September is his birthday.)

Here, ‘아세요’ is the combination of 알다 and 세요, which begins with ‘ㅅ.’ So ‘ㄹ’ is omitted. 알고 is a combination of 알다 and 고.

This is another short conversation.

Naun asks:

“백화점은 보통 몇 시에 열어요?” (What time do the department stores usually open?)

Minjo  replies:

“보통 10시에 열어요.” (They usually open at 10 o’clock.)

Naun says:

“생각보다 늦게 여네요.” (It’ late than I thought.)

Here, 열어요 is the combination of 열다 and 어요.

Here, ‘여네요’ is the combination of 열다 and 네요, which begins with ‘ㄴ.’ So ‘ㄹ’ is omitted.

Korean irregular verb ㄹ summary

To sum up, when the final consonant ‘ㄹ’ in the stem meets the individual consonant ‘ㄹ’ in the ending the final consonant ‘ㄹ’ is omitted and the individual consonant ‘ㄹ’ becomes the final consonant. So, when ‘살다’ meets ‘ㄹ까요’, it becomes ‘살까요.’

On the other hand when the final consonant ‘ㄹ’ in the stem meets a letter which begins with ‘ㄹ’ the final consonant ‘ㄹ’ remains the same. So, when ‘살다’ meets ‘려고 하다’, it becomes ‘살려고 하다.’ The final consonant ‘ㄹ’ remains.

Now, let’s find out when the final consonant ‘ㄹ’ in the stem meets the adjective/verb ending that begins with the vowel ‘으.’ These are the endings we’ve learned. What do they have in common?

When the stem has the final consonant, they all contain the vowel ‘으.’ Basically, when an adjective/verb stem has the final consonant, ‘으세요, 을까요, 을 거예요, 으려고 하다’ are used. And they all start with ‘으.’

On the other hand, when an adjective/verb stem does not have the final consonant, ‘세요, ㄹ까요, ㄹ 거예요, 려고 하다’ are used which does not have ‘으.’ But, when ‘살다’ that has the final consonant ‘ㄹ’ is combined with the endings,It is combined with the endings which do not have ‘으’.Why is it? Let’s look at them together.

When the final consonant ‘ㄹ’ in the stem meets the endings that begin with ‘으,’ ‘으’ is omitted. And the final consonant ‘ㄹ’ remains. Let’s look at some examples.

‘살다’ + ‘ㄹ 거예요.’

In this time, ‘살다’ meets ‘ㄹ 거예요.’

First, remove ‘다’ from ‘살다, and there is the final consonant ‘ㄹ’ in the stem. When the ending that begins with the individual consonant ‘ㄹ’ is added after that, ‘ㄹ’ is omitted from ‘살 ㄹ 거예요.’

The individual consonant ‘ㄹ’ in the ending is used as the final consonant. So, it becomes ‘살 거예요’.

 ‘살다’ + ‘ㄹ까요.

’when the verb ‘살다’ meets ‘ㄹ까요.’

First, remove ‘다’ from ‘살다, and there is the final consonant ‘ㄹ’ in the stem. When the ending that begins with the individual consonant ‘ㄹ’ is added after that the final consonant ‘ㄹ’ in the stem is omitted from ‘살ㄹ까요.’ And the individual consonant ‘ㄹ’ is used as the final consonant. So, it becomes ‘살까요?’

‘살다’ +‘려고 하다’

Then, how about when ‘살다’ meets ‘려고 하다’?

Firstly, remove ‘다’ from ‘살다, and there is the final consonant ‘ㄹ’ in the stem. Then the letter ‘려’ is added after that. ‘려’ is different from the individual consonant ‘ㄹ.’ ‘려’ is the letter from the combination between ㄹ and ㅕ. In this case, the final consonant ‘ㄹ’ is not omitted. So, it becomes ‘살려고 하다.’

We’re going to look at the case when 살다’ meets ‘을 거예요.’

Basically, as 살다 has the final consonant ‘ㄹ’, it is correct to add ‘을 거예요.’ But, there is the final consonant ‘ㄹ’ after removing ‘다’ from ‘살다.’ And the vowel ‘으’ is added after that. In this case, the vowel ‘으’ is omitted. So, ‘ㄹ 거예요’ is added after ‘살.’

Moreover, here again, the final consonant ‘ㄹ’ in the stem meets the individual consonant ‘ㄹ’ in the ending. We’ve just looked at it. In the case, the final consonant ‘ㄹ’ is omitted. And the individual consonant ‘ㄹ’ becomes the final consonant. So it becomes ‘살 거예요.’ Let’s look at some more examples.

살다+ 을 거예요

We’re going to look at the case when 살다’ meets ‘을 거예요.’

Basically, as 살다 has the final consonant ‘ㄹ’, it is correct to add ‘을 거예요.’ But, there is the final consonant ‘ㄹ’ after removing ‘다’ from ‘살다.’ And the vowel ‘으’ is added after that. In this case, the vowel ‘으’ is omitted. So, ‘ㄹ 거예요’ is added after ‘살.’

Moreover, here again, the final consonant ‘ㄹ’ in the stem meets the individual consonant ‘ㄹ’ in the ending. We’ve just looked at it. In the case, the final consonant ‘ㄹ’ is omitted. And the individual consonant ‘ㄹ’ becomes the final consonant. So it becomes ‘살 거예요.’ Let’s look at some more examples.

살다 +으세요?

How would it become when 살다 meets 으세요? Remove ‘다’. The final consonant ‘ㄹ’ meets the vowel ‘으’. Then, ‘으’ is omitted. It becomes ‘살세요.’

Here again, the final consonant ‘ㄹ’ meets the ending that begins with ‘ㅅ’. Then, the final consonant ‘ㄹ’ is omitted, and it becomes ‘사세요.’ Here is another example.

살다 + 읍니다

What would it become when 살다 meets 읍니다? Remove ‘다’, then the final consonant ‘ㄹ’ meets the vowel ‘으.’ Then, ‘으’ is omitted. It becomes ‘살ㅂ니다.’

Here again, the final consonant ‘ㄹ’ meets the ending that begins with ‘ㅂ’ Then, the final consonant ‘ㄹ’ is omitted. And ‘ㅂ’ is used as the final consonant, it becomes ‘삽니다.’

‘살다’ + ‘으려고 하다.’

Lastly, what would it become when ‘살다’ meets ‘으려고 하다.’?

Remove ‘다’, then the final consonant ‘ㄹ’ meets the vowel ‘으.’ Then, the final consonant ‘ㄹ’ is omitted. It becomes ‘살려고 하다.’ So, when the final consonant ‘ㄹ’ in the stem meets the vowel ‘으,’ ‘으’ is omitted. And the endings such as ‘세요, ㅂ니다, 려고 하다’ are added directly after the stem.

Now, let’s look at the regular conjugation. When ‘살다’ meets ‘아요’, it becomes ‘살아요.’ The final consonant ‘ㄹ’ remains the same. 

When ‘살다’ meets ‘지만’, it becomes ‘살지만.’ The final consonant ‘ㄹ’ remains the same. Lastly, when ‘살다’ meets ‘고’, it becomes ‘살고.’ The final consonant ‘ㄹ’ remains the same.