Korean grammar 아서/어서/해서 in detail
This is the first part of the Korean grammar아서/어서/해서 series. You can access the second part from here. ‘아서/어서/해서’is used to link two closely related actions in chronological order.
아서/어서/해서 can be used in 3 ways
1 Used to connect two actions over time. For example- 놀이 동산에 가서 롤러코스터를 탔어요. went to the amusement park and rode a roller coaster. Here, 가서 connects two actions.
2.Used to show reason and evidence.( 이유나 근거를 나타낼 때 사용해요). F For example-or example- 배고파서 밥 먹었어요 .I ate a meal because I was hungry.
3.It is also used to indicate means and methods. (수단과 방법을 나타낼 때도 사용해요). For example- 운동해서 살을 빼요. ( 운동해서 shows the way/method of lowering body fat).
These phrases show that ‘아서/어서/해서’ is used after the verb stem as a connection end or connecting particles.
It is used to connect two behaviors that are closely related. It is used when the previous action occurred before the second action can take place.
Action1 ———– + —— action2
Here, action 2 occurred after action1, At this point, the first action is related to the second action.’아서/어서/해서‘ are used to connect these 2 actions. For example
빵집에 가서 빵을 먹었어요.went to the bakery and ate bread.
First- went to bakery. 빵집에 갔어요
Second – had a bread. 빵을 먹었어요빵을 먹었어요
The second action happened only because of the first action. And these two actions are connected closely.
선물을 사서 친구에게 줘요 (Bought a gift and gave to a friend) is made up of two sentences. 선물을 사서 친구에게 줘요.
Bought a gift is the first action and given to a friend is the second action. 사서 played a role in connecting two actions.
The second action was possible because of the first action. Both of these actions are closely related.
공원에 나가서 산책해요.
선물을 사서 교수님께 드려요.
밥을 해서 먹어요.
버스정류장 가서 4번 버스를 타세요.
‘아서/어서/해서‘are used after verb stem. Let’s see some examples
Remove 다’ from verbs ‘가다, 만들다, 요리하다’. And add ‘아서/어서/해서’ after these verbs now it becomes ‘가서, 만들어서, 요리해서’
가다 + 아서 = 가서
오다 + 아서 = 와서
보다 + 아서 = 봐서
만들다 + 어서 = 만들어서
요리하다 + 해서 = 요리해서
아서/어서/해서 grammar rule
After removing 다, if there is ‘ㅏ’ or ㅗ’ vowel at the verb stem we have to use 아서.
‘가다’ has ㅏ ending after removing 다, so according to the rule we have to use 가서.
After removing ‘다’ from a verb, if a verb stem has vowel except ‘ㅏ or ㅗ’ we have to use 어서.
먹다 hasㄱ ending verb stem.so we have to use 어서 and it becomes 먹어서.
If there is ㄹ ending verb stem we have to use 어서
만들다 has ㄹ ending after removing 다 so we have to use 어서 and it becomes 만들어서.
After removing 다 from 하다, it attaches with 여서 and become ‘하여서’. By combining 하 and 여 it becomes 해서.
You just need to understand this process, just remember 하다 always changes into 해서.
Let’s practice how to conjugate ‘아서/어서/해서’ with verb endings.
오다 to come
After removing ‘다’ from 오다, 오 remains. So we have to use 와서 (오 + 아서 = 와서)
먹다 to eat
After removing ‘다’ from ‘먹다’ ‘ㅓ’ vowel remains. ‘ㅓ’is neither ‘ㅏ’ nor ‘ㅗ’ so we have to use 아서 according to rule.
공부하다 to study
공부하다 has 하다 at the end. So according to rule 하다 changes into 해서 and become ‘공부해서’.
verb 아서/어서/해서 is used to link two closely related actions in chronological order.
아서/어서/해서 is used after verb stem and it is not used after tense.
If the verb stem has ‘ㅏ’ or ‘ㅗ’ vowel ‘아서’ is used.
If the verb stem has vowels except ‘ㅏ’ or ‘ㅗ’ then 어서 is used.
하다 always changes into 해서.
Here is a table showing everything about today’s grammar. The first line (the Redline has verb ending letters), the second line has the rule to combine with verb endings and the third line is the example words.
|ㅏ ㅗ||Vowel except ㅏ ㅗ||하다|
|가다 + 아서 = 가서||만들다 + 어서 = 만들어서||요리하다 = 요리해서|
Important point of 아서, 어서, 해서
1.They are commonly used with certain verbs.
|가다||가 + 아서 = 가서||학교에 가서 공부해요|
|오다||오 + 아서 = 와서||집에 와서 밥 먹어요|
|만나다||만나 + 아서 = 만나서||만나서 매우 반가웠습니다.|
|만들다||만들 + 어서 = 만들어서||새 위치를 만들어서 목록에 추가하려면 클릭하십시오|
|사다||사 + 아서 = 사서||케잌을 사서 생일 파티를 해요|
|내리다||내리 + 어서 = 내려서||비가 내려서 난 쫄딱 다 맞았다|
|일어나다||일어나 + 아서 = 일어나서||일어나서 방 청소 좀 하거라.|
2. The subject of the preceding clause and the subject of the following clause must be the same. For example
나는 학교에 가서 오빠는 공부해요.'(Incorrect sentence)
‘나는 학교에 가요.’오빠는 공부해요.’
The subject of the first clause is I and the subject of the second clause is Brother. So the sentence is incorrect (틀린 문장입니다).
‘나는 학교에 가서 나는 공부해요. Which is correct.
Both clauses have the same subject.
3. It is not used with the ending of the tense.
‘나는 학교에 갔어요.’ ‘I went to school.’
‘나는 공부했어요.’ I studied.
Both are past tense (과거 시제).
‘나는 학교에 갔어서 공부했어요.’
In this sentence, 어서 has used after the tense 갔(past tense of 가다). It is incorrect /틀린 문장.
나는 학교에 가서 공부했어요. correct sentence (바른 문장은)
‘가서’ should be used instead of 갔어요’.