How to pronunce batchim/ badchim (받침)?
Batchim is written as 받침 in Korean. Badchim is derived from 받치다 which means to support. Batchim supports a set of a consonant and a vowel.
Batchim is a letter that is something underneath another letter. Some Korean word has a first consonant and the second consonant. The second consonant is the last consonant. so it could be the second or last consonant and this is called Batchim/ Badchim 받침. For example –
Hill 산 = Here ㄴ is the last consonant, so it is a Batchim.
spring 봄 = Here ㅁ is the last consonant, so it is a Batchim.
곽 =Here ㄱ is the last consonant, so it is a Batchim.
(Banana)바나나 has no letter underneath so it has no Badchim. But 컵 has ㅂ as a last consonant or ㅂ is underneath of 커 so 컵 has final consonant.
The rule is simple – If a word has batchim you have to use ‘ㅇ’ form of particle-like 은, 을, 이, 으로. And if a word has no badchim you have to use particles without ‘ㅇ’ like 는, 를, 가, 로 etc. For example-
컴퓨터 has no batchim so 가 is used.
책상 has ㅇ badchim so 이 is used.
저는 공원 으로 가요. 공원 has final consonant so 으로 is used.
저는 학교로 가요. 학교 has no final consonant so 로 is used.
If there is 이에요 and 예요 which one should you use? Lets find out
저는 마이콜 이에요.
How many consonants are Batchim?
There are 16 consonants used as badchim. But there are only 7 kinds of pronunciation. In other words, there are different characters that have the same pronunciation.
- ㄱ,ㅋ,ㄲ – All these 3 (consonants) batchim makes same sound ㄱ/ (k)
죽, 부엌, 밖
- ㄴ – ㄴ makes ㄴ/ n sound.
- ㄷ,ㅌ,ㅅ,ㅆ,ㅈ,ㅊ,ㅎ – All these 7 (consonants) batchim makes same sound as ㄷ/ t.
곧, 밑, 옷, 갔다, 낮, 빚, 히읗
- ㄹ – ㄹ makes ㄹ/ L sound.
- ㅁ – ㅁ makes ㅁ/ M sound.
- ㅂ, ㅍ – ㅂ and ㅍ makes ㅂ/ P sound.
- ㅇ – ㅇ makes NG sound.
Some batchim are made up of double consonants and it is called double batchim. There are not many words with double Badchim but they are used often, so if you memorize about 30 words with double batchim that’s good enough.
There are 11 double batchim in total. It is more efficient to memorize them together with real words instead of trying to remember all the patterns at once.
ㄳ, ㄺ, ㄵ, ㄶ, ㄼ, ㄽ, ㄾ, ㅀ, ㄻ, ㅄ, ㄿ.
There are also double batchim that are almost never used in daily life. So let’s learn only practical ones.
읽다 to read
닭 chicken meat
듥다 to get old
낡다 (an object is) old
ㄵ, ㄶ (n)
앉다 – to sit
많다 – many
괜찮다 – Its okay
ㄼ, ㅀ (L)
여덟 – eight
짧다 – short
넓다 – wide
얇다 – thin
싫다 – Dislike
뚫다 – Drill
잃다 – Lose
닮다 – similar
젊다 – young
없다 – absent
Batchim Changes in pronunciation
Batchim + ㅇ
먹어 is pronunced as 머거
이것은 is pronunced as 이거슨
When 이응 comes after double batchim you read both double batchim. For example
젊어요 young – becomes 절머요
앉아 sit – becomes 안자
ㄷ, ㅌ + 이 = ㅈ, ㅊ
굳이 is pronunced as 구지
같이 is pronunced as 가치
ㅎ batchim combined withㅇ then ㅎ will not be pronounced. for example –
좋아 is pronunced as 조아
싫어 is pronunced as 시러
When ㄱ, ㄷ, ㅂ, ㅅ, ㅈ comes after the batchim ㄱ, ㄷ, ㅂ then their pronunciation will be ㄲ, ㄸ, ㅃ, ㅆ, ㅉ. For example –
없고 is pronunced as 업꼬
책상 – pronunced as 책쌍
꽃밭 – pronunced as 꼳빧
When batchim ㄱ,ㄷ,ㅂ,ㅈ comes before the consonant ㅎ, they will be pronunced as ㅋ, ㅌ, ㅍ, ㅊ respectively. For example,
축하해 (congratulations) is pronounced as 추카해.
입학 (enrolment) is pronounced as 이팍.
맞히다 (to hit) is pronounced as 마치다.
When the consonant ㄴ and ㅁ comes after the ㄱ, ㄷ, ㅂ then
the batchim ㄱ becomes ㅇ
the batchim ㄷ becomes ㄴ
the batchim ㅂ becomes ㅁ
For example –
박물관 (Museum) becomes 방물관
믿는 (To believe) pronounced as 민는
감사합니다 (Thankyou) pronunced as 감사함니다
If ㄹ comes after the batchim ㅁ, ㅇ – then ㄹ is pronounced as ㄴ. For example –
심리학 (psychology) – becomes 심니학
종류 (type) – becomes 종뉴