korean adjectives

1000 Most commonly used Korean adjectives 

          Adjectives are words that describe nouns then what is a noun? In Korean adjectives originally comes from verbs so we can also say adjectives are descriptive verbs but not action verbs. Nouns are basically people, things and places. 

        In Korean, a verb can also be an adjective. Let’s see with an example:‘TO BE BIG’ is 크다, which is a verb and it can be changed into adjectives.

A house(집) is a noun. And Big house (큰 집), small house (작은 집) has both noun(명사) and adjectives(형용사). Here big(크다 = 큰) and small(작다 = 작은) describes a noun house. So Big 큰 and Small 작은 are adjectives.

          There are two ways to use adjectives in English, for example, you can say pretty Anjelina. Here pretty being an adjective that describes the name Anjelina, which is a noun but you can also say Anjelina is pretty. Another example is little Kim but you can also say Kim is little also.

          The same happens in Korean there are two ways to use adjectives in Korean too. we are going to learn both situations.

            The first scenario is when you use an adjective before a noun just like pretty Anjelina or little Kim. In this case, you use the suffix 은 at the end of a verb stem. If you don’t know things about Korean verbs visit this page

Korean adjectives romanized 

Watch these videos to learn Korean adjectives romanized version.

Does Korean have adjectives?

Korean language (Hangul) has adjectives. Korean adjectives are like verbs. Korean adjectives can be used at the last of the sentence also. For example

크다 – (to be) big

작다 – (to be) small

The most commonly used form of Korean adjective is by using 은/ㄴ. For example-

크다 – 큰 – (to be) big

작다 – 작은 – (to be) small

How to use 은/ㄴ in Korean adjectives? Let’s find out now from next subheading of this page. (Korean adjectives conjugation)

Korean adjectives conjugation

       Remember that adjectives are considered the same as Verbs ( They act like verbs). So we conjugate adjectives as well but now we’re looking at how to conjugate adjectives that are used right before nouns. 

When there is a consonant on adjective stem we have to use 은.

On the other hand, if there is a vowel on adjective end we have to use ㄴ.

     There are 2 ways to use adjectives in Korean. One is used just before a noun and another is used after nouns. Let’s see one by one. First, let’s start with adjectives before nouns-

예쁘다 (Pretty, Beautiful)

        예쁘다 (Pretty, Beautiful)is a dictionary form or basic form of an adjective. what is the adjective stem of the word 예쁘다?

          We have to just simply erase the 다 and remaining part is 예쁘. Here ㅡ is the adjective stem. So according to the rule 예쁜 is used as an adjective before the noun.

예쁜 여자 Pretty girl.

예쁜 입 Pretty mouth.

예쁜 인형 Pretty doll.

예쁜 얼굴 Pretty face.

          크다 (Big)

    크다(Big) is a basic form of an adjective. After removing 다 the remaining part is 크. Here ㅡ is adjective stem so according to the rule, we will add ㄴ after the adjective stem now 크다 becomes 큰. 

큰 건물 Big building

큰누나 one’s oldest[eldest] sister

지역 Large Area

남자 Big man

                           작다 (small)   

   작다 (small) is a basic form of an adjective. After removing 다 the remaining part is 작. Here ㄱ is adjective stem so according to the rule we will add 은 after the adjective stem. Now 작다 becomes 작은. 

작은 집 Small house

작은 거? The small one?

작은 하트. A small heart.

작은누나[언니] one’s second oldest[older]sister

        The second way of using Korean adjective is using adjectives after the noun. Remember Korean adjectives act just like verbs. So we can make sentences like this

  1. Minjo is pretty. – 민조가 예쁘다.  Or 민조가 예뻐요.
  2. Linmi is tall. – 린미가 크다. Or 린미가 커요.
  3. Kyangju is good/ nice. 경주가 착하다. Or 경주가 착해요.

         There are some other types of verbs which will conjugate in adjectives differently. Let’s take a look at some of them. 

  1. The first one is ㅂ case. After removing the 다 at the end of a descriptive verb if the verb stem ends in a single Biup(ㅂ) it’ll conjugate differently.

First, remove the biup (ㅂ) then add the syllable 우 and finally add ㄴto the bottom.

               To be difficult 어렵다

           Let’s take a look at the verb ‘to be difficult 어렵다’, first, remove the 다 then remove the ㅂ. The remaining part is 어려, now according to rule add the syllable 우 then add ㄴ to the bottom. It becomes 어려운. 

어려운 결정을 내리다make a hard[tough] decision.

어려운 문제를 풀다 – solve a hard question.

어려운 일 – A hard task

      It seems like a lot of steps involved in this process so I will make it simpler when there is a single biup (ㅂ) at the stem just remove that and add 운. 

         Remember that this is only for the verb that ends in a single Biup (ㅂ) but not double Biup (ㅃ). The descriptive verb 예쁘다 to ‘be pretty’ has double Biup (ㅃ) so it becomes 예쁜.

2. The second one is a ㄹ case. After removing the 다 at the end of a descriptive verb if the verb stem ends in a single Riul(ㄹ) it’ll conjugate differently.

       First, remove the Riul(ㄹ) at the bottom then add the ㄴto the bottom. Let’s see examples of this also

                To be far – 멀다

        First, remove 다. Then ㄹ. Now the only 머 is remaining. According to rule just add ㄴ. Now it becomes 먼.

울다(cry) becomes 운

길  a long way

데  a far-off place

먼 나라 a distant country

산  a distant mountain

3. The third one is a 있다 case. After removing the 다. We have to add 는. Let’s see examples of this also.

        맛이 있다 is a descriptive verb and it changes into adjectives also. According to rule after removing 다 we have to add 는, now it becomes맛이 있는.

          Actually 있다 ‘to exist’ is an action verb but many times it is used as a descriptive verb also.

korean adjectives

Korean adjectives list

Some examples of most common Korean adjectives are

A few 몇 가지
Able 할수있는
Available 구할[이용할] 수 있는
Bad 안 좋은, 나쁜
Best 제일 좋은
Better 더 좋은, 더잘 하는
Big 큰
Black 검은
Central 중심되는, 가장 중요한
Certain 확실한
circular 둥근/원형의
clean 깨끗한
Clear 분명한, 맑은
Close 가까운
Cold 추운, 차가운 (regarding weather)
Common 흔한
correct 올바른
Cultural 문화의
Current 현재의, 지금의
dark 어두운
Dead 죽은
Deep 깊은
Democratic 민주 적인
Different 다른, 차이가 나는
difficult 어려운
Easy 쉬운, 수월한
Economical 경제적인
empty 비어있는/빈
Environmental 환경의
expensive (가격이) 비싼
fast 빨리

Federal 연방제의
Final 마지막의
Free 자유로운, 자기 하고 싶은 대로 하는
fresh 신선한
full 가득한/완전한
General 일반 적인, 보통
Gentle, kind, Nice 친절하다 – 친절한
Good 좋다 – 좋은
Good 좋은
Great 큰[많은], 엄청난
Happy 행복한[기쁜]
Hard 단단한, 굳은, 딱딱한, stiff
hard 어려운
Heavy 무거운
High 높은
Hot 더운[뜨거운] (regarding weather)
Huge 거대한
Important 중요한
inexpensive 값싼/ 비싸지 않은
International 국제적인
Large 큰; 많은
Late 늦은
Legal 합법적인
light 가벼운/밝은
Little 작은
little 조금
local 지역의/현지의
Long 긴
Low 낮은
Main 주된, 가장 큰
Major 주요한, 중대한
much 많은
narrow 좁은
National 전국적인
Natural 자연, 정상적인
New 새로운, fresh
Nice 좋은, 즐거운, 멋진
noisy 시끄러운
Old 낡은
old 오래된/늙은
old 오래된/늙은
Only 유일한
Open 열려 있는
Other 다른
Past 지나간, 지난
Personal 개인의
Physical 물질 적인
Poor 가난한
Popular 인기 있는
Possible 가능한
powerful 강한
Private 개인
Public 일반인
qualities 특성
quantities 수량
quiet 조용한
Ready 준비가 (다) 된
Real 실재하는
Recent 최근의
Religious 종교의
Right 올바른, 맞는
salty 짠
Serious 심각한
shapes 모양/형태
short 짧은
Significant 중요한
Similar 비슷한, 유사한, 닮은
Simple 간단한, 단순한
slow 느린/천천히
Small 작은
Social 사회적인
soft 부드러운
some 약간
sour 신(시큼한)
Special 특수한, 특별한
square 정사각형 (모양)의/직각의
straight 똑바로, 곧장, 바로
straight 일자형의/직선형의
Strong 튼튼한, 강력한
Sure 확신하는
sweet 달콤한
tall 키가 큰
tastes 맛
thick 두꺼운
thin 얇은
To be ugly 못생기다
Traditional 전통의
triangular 삼각형의
True 맞는, 사실인
Various 다양한
very 매우/아주
weak 약한
wet/ damp 젖은
White 하얀, 흰
Whole 모든, 온전한
Whole 모든, 전체
whole 전체
wide 넓은
wrong 잘못된
young 어린/젊은
Young 젊은

Korean adjectives vocabulary

같다: to be the same
걱정하다: to be worried
건강하다: to be healthy
건조하다: to be dry
괜찮다: to be alright, ok
귀엽다: to be cute
급하다: to be urgent
기름지다: to be fatty, greasy, oily
깡마르다: to be skinny, scrawny
날씬하다: to be slim, slender
놀라다: to be surprised
더럽다: to be dirty
덥다: to be hot
따뜻하다: to be warm (regarding both weather and objects)
똑똑하다: to be smart, clever
뚱뚱하다: to be fat, overweight
뜨겁다: to be hot (regarding touch, objects)
말랑하다: to be soft, tender, ripe
맛없다: to be not tasty
맛있다: to be delicious, tasty
맵다: to be spicy

멍청하다: to be stupid, foolish
목이 마르다: to be thirsty
무섭다: to be scared
미끄럽다: to be slippery
배가 고프다: to be hungry
복잡하다: to be jammed, crowded
불편하다: to be uncomfortable
비싸다: to be expensive
비열하다: to be mean, nasty
빠르다: to be fast
뾰족하다: to be sharp, pointed
수줍다: to be shy
쉽다: to be easy
슬프다: to be sad
습하다: to be damp, moist, humid
시원하다: to be cool, refreshing
심심하다: to be bored
싸늘하다: to be chilly, frosty
쓰다: to be bitter
씩씩하다: to be brave
아름답다: to be beautiful
아프다: to be sick, painful
오래되다: to be old (regarding objects)
이르다: to be early
이상하다: to be weird, strange
잘생기다: to be good looking
재미없다: to not be interesting
재미있다: to be interesting
적다: Few, little
졸리다: to be sleepy
지루하다: to be boring, dull
짜증나다: to be annoyed
차갑다: to be cold
착하다: to be good-natured, nice
촉촉하다: to be moist
축축하다: to be damp, clammy, wet
통통하다: to be chubby
편리하다: to be convenient
편하다: to be comfortable
피곤하다: to be tired, exhausted
화나다: to be angry
흐리다: to be cloudy

Korean adjectives order

Bitter 쓰다
Bored 심심하다
Boring, Dull 지루하다
Brave 씩씩하다
Chilly, Frosty 싸늘하다
Dirty 더럽다
Dry, Arid 건조하다
Embarrassed 당황하다
Fat, Overweight 뚱뚱하다
Full, Crammed 가득하다
Good Looking 잘생기다
Good-Natured, Nice 착하다
Hard, Stiff 딱딱하다
High 높다
Jammed, Crowded 복잡하다
Mean, Nasty 비열하다
Moist 촉촉하다
Sharp, Pointed 날카롭다, 뾰족하다
Similar 비슷하다
Skinny, Scrawny 깡마르다
Slippery 미끄럽다
Slow 느리다
Smart, Clever 똑똑하다
Soft, Tender, Ripe 말랑하다
Tired, Exhausted 피곤하다
Ugly 못생기다
Urgent 급하다
Warm 따뜻하다
Weird, Strange 이상하다

Korean adjectives examples

Beautiful – 아름다운  ugly – 못생긴

Bright- 밝은  dark – 어두운

Careful – 조심하는 careless – 부주의한

Dangerous – 위험한  safe – 안전한

Difficult – 어려운, 힘든  easy – 쉬운, 수월한

Dirty – 더러운, 지저분한  clean – 깨끗한, 깔끔한

Dry – 마른, 건조한,  wet – 젖은

Empty – 비어 있는, 빈 Full – 가득한, 빈 공간이 없는

Excited – 신이 난 bored – 지루한

Expensive – 비싼  cheap –

Fat – 뚱뚱한 slim – 날씬한

Great – 위대한/ 주요한  minor – 단조/ 작은

Happy – 행복한 sad – 슬픈

Hard – 단단한 soft – 부드러운

Healthy – 건강한 sick – 아픈, 병든

Helpful – 도움이 되는 helpless 무력한

High – 높은 low – 낮은

Horrible – 끔찍한 nice – 좋은, 멋진

Hot – 더운 cold – 추운, 차가운

Late – 늦은 early – 이른 / 일찍

Light – 가벼운 heavy – 무거운

Married – 결혼을 한 single – 미혼

Narrow – 좁은  Wide – 넓은

Naughty – 버릇없는 well behaved / polite 예의 바른/ 공손한

New – 새, 새로운 old – 늙은, 나이 많은

Noisy – 시끄러운 quiet – 조용한

Painless – 고통 없는, 아프지 않은  painful – 아픈, 괴로운

Polite – 공손한, 정중한 rude – 무례한, 예의 없는, 버릇없는

Rich – 돈 많은, 부자인 poor – 가난한, 빈곤한

Rough – 거친  smooth – 매끈한

Short – 짧은 tall – 키가 큰, 높은

Shy – 수줍어[부끄러워]하는 outgoing – 사교적인 

Small – 작은  large –

Sour – 신, 시큼한 sweet – 달콤한

Strong – 튼튼한, 강한, 힘센  weak – 약한, 힘이 없는

Thin – 얇은 Thick – 두꺼운

Tiny – 아주 작은 enormous – 막대한, 거대한

Tired –  피곤한 energetic – 정력을 요하는

Useful – 유용한 useless – 소용없는

Young – 어린 old – 늙은, 나이 많은 

big –  small – 작은

black – 검은 white – 하얀

close – 가까운 far – 멀리

deep – 깊은 shallow – 얕은 

fast – 빠른 slow – 느린

funny – 우스운 serious – 심각한

generous – 후한 selfish – 이기적인

good – 즐거운, 기쁜, 좋은 bad – 안 좋은, 불쾌한, 나쁜

lazy – 느긋한, 여유로운 hard-working – 근면한, 부지런히 일하는

left – 왼쪽의, 좌측의  right – 오른쪽 – 오른쪽

loose – 풀린 tight – 단단한, 꽉 조여[묶여] 있는

nervous – 불안해 하는 relaxed – 느긋한, 여유 있는

open – 열려 있는 closed – 닫힌

straight – 똑바로 curly – 곱슬곱슬한

tidy – 깔끔한  messy – 지저분한, 엉망인

wrong – 틀린, 잘못된 right – 올바른, 맞는, 정확한

500 basic Korean adjectives pdf

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Korean language beginner book

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Top 1000 Most Commonly Used Korean Adjectives Full List - Learn Korean

Korean adjectives rule- If there is a consonant on adjective stem = 은. If there is a vowel on adjective end = ㄴ. local 지역의/현지의 Long 긴 Low 낮은 Major 주요한 much 많은

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