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지 않다 Korean negation complete guide

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지 않다 Korean negation complete guide

Today we’re going to learn Adj./ verb 지 않다 (형용사/동사-지 않다). We’ve already learned the grammar ‘안 V’ which negates an action or a state. 지 않다 also negate an action or verb. Actually 안 and 지 않다 have the same meaning and both are used to make sentences negative (안 and 지 않다 both are Korean negators).

There are two ways to make any sentences negative. one way is with 안 and the other way is using 지 않다. 안 sounds a bit more informal than 지 않다 but they both have the same meaning. In this chapter I’ll show you how to use each of them For example-

‘지금 비가 와요?’ Is it raining now?
‘아니요, 안 와요.’ No, It isn’t raining.
지금 비가 오지 않아요.No, It isn’t raining now.

Here, ‘안 와요’ is a combination of ‘안’ and the verb ‘오다 (to come/rain).’
It negates the ‘오다 (to come/rain)’ verb.

Now, we’re going to learn another expression ‘Adjective/Verb-지 않다’ which also negates an action or a state.
지금 비가 오지 않아요. No, It isn’t raining now.

Here, ‘오지 않아요’ is a combination of the verb ‘오다 (to come/rain) and ‘지 않다.’ It negates the verb ‘오다 (to come/rain)’.

지 않다 conjugation

지 않다 is conjugated by taking the verb stem from the root verb and removing the 다 (DA) and then adding 지 않다 then conjugating. Whether the verb/adjective stem has final consonant or not 지 않다 is used. 비가 오지 않아요 and 비가 안 와요 have the same meaning. That is not raining. Here are some examples of 지 않다.

마시다 – 마시지 않다
예쁘다 – 예쁘지 않다
덥다 – 덥지 않다
춥다 – 춥지 않다
시원하다 – 시원하지 않다
깊다 – 깊지 않다
조용하다 – 조용하지 않다
시끄럽다 – 시끄럽지 않다
멀다 – 멀지 않다
가깝다 – 가깝지 않다

지 않다 examples

Now let’s find out more about today’s grammar ‘Adjective/Verb-지 않다’ that negates an action or a state. Let’s see some examples-
바빠요? Are you busy?
아니요, 바쁘지 않아요. No, I’m not busy.

Here ‘지 않아요’ negates the verb 바쁘다.
바쁘다 (to be busy) + 지 않다 = 바쁘지 않다

‘지 않다’ attaches after an adjective/verb stem.
It is used to negate an action or a state.

안 바빠요. I’m not busy, and 바쁘지 않아요. I’m not busy. Both have the same meaning. 안 is used before verb/adjective or action and 지않다 is used after the verb or adjective stem.

Let’s look at the next example.

김치는 맵지 않아요.’ Kimchi is not spicy.
Here ‘맵지 않아요’ is a combination of the adjective 맵다 (to be spicy)’ and ‘지 않다’.
‘지 않다’ is used to negate ‘매워요.’

Is Kimchi spicy?
아니요, 맵지 않아요. No, it is not spicy.
안 매워요. It is not spicy.
Both have the same meaning.

Whether the adjective has the final consonant or not at its stem ‘지 않다’ is used in both cases.

Let’s look at example sentences with verbs.

‘저는 소주를 마시지 않아요.’ I don’t drink soju (alcohol).

Here ‘마시지 않아요’ is a combination of the verb 마시다 (to drink)’ and ‘지 않다’.
‘지 않다’ is used to negate the verb ‘마시다 (to drink).’

Do I drink?
아니요, 술을 마시지 않아요. No, I don’t drink alcohol.
안 마셔요. No, I don’t drink.
Both have the same meaning.

‘저는 소고기는 먹지 않아요.’ I don’t eat beef.
Here, ‘먹지 않아요’ is a combination of the verb ‘먹다 (to eat) and ‘지 않다.’
‘지 않다’ is used to negate the verb ‘먹어요 (to eat).’

Do I eat beef?
아니요, 먹지 않아요. No, I don’t eat it.
안 먹어요. No, I don’t eat it.
Both phrases mean the same.

어제 놀이 공원에 갔어요? Did you go to a theme park yesterday?
“아니요, 날씨가 좋지 않아서 가지 않았어요.” No, I did not go there because the weather was not good.

“그럼 놀이공원에 가지 않고 뭐 했어요?” Then, what did you do without going to the theme park?

“그냥 집에서 쉬었어요.” I just took a rest at home.

‘좋지 않아서 – ‘좋지 않아서’ is a combination of the adjective ‘좋다 (to be good) and ‘지 않다.’

가지 않았어요 – ‘가지 않았어요’ is a combination of the verb ‘가다 (to go)’ and ‘지 않다’

가지 않고 – ‘가지 않고’ also is a combination of the verb ‘가다 (to go)” and ‘지 않다’.

지 않다 Practice

Let’s practice by looking at some more examples. Let’s make sentences using ‘지 않다’.

‘저는 매일, 운동하다’ I every day, to exercise
How would you say it?
저는 매일 운동하지 않아요. I don’t exercise every day.
‘운동하지 않아요’ is a combination of the verb ‘운동하다’ and ‘지 않다’

‘어제 백화점에, 가다’
How would you say it?
‘어제 백화점에 가지 않았어요.’ I did not go to the department store.
‘가지 않았어요’ is a combination of the verb ‘가다’ and ‘지 않다’

‘저는 밤늦게 음식을, 먹다’
How would you say it?
‘저는 밤늦게 음식을 먹지 않아요.’ I don’t eat food late at night.
‘먹지 않아요’ is a combination of the verb ‘먹다’ and ‘지 않다’

지 않다 summary

안 and 지 않다 have the same meaning and both are used to make sentences negative (안 and 지 않다 both are Korean negators). Whether an adjective/verb stem has the final consonant or not, ‘지 않다’ is used in both cases. For example-
‘맵다’ becomes ‘맵지 않다,’
‘바쁘다’ becomes ‘바쁘지 않다’

Past tense form of 지 않다 is 지 않았다. For example-
지난 밤에는 (어제 밤에) 저녁을 먹지 않았어요. I didn’t eat dinner last night.

If someone asks you a question using ‘지 않다?’ How would you answer?
‘덥지 않아요?’ Isn’t it hot (/warm)?
Then, you can answer this:
안 더워요. It’s not hot.
‘네, 덥지 않아요.’ (lit. Yes, it’s not hot.)

If it’s hot then you can answer like this
‘아니요, 더워요.’ (lit. No, it’s hot.)
In Korean, you can answer positively or negatively to the question itself.

You can answer positively to the question like this
‘네, 덥지 않아요.’ (lit. Yes, it’s not hot.)

You can answer negatively to the question like this
‘아니요, 더워요.’ (lit. No, it’s hot.)
네 (yes) is positive and 아니요 (no) is negative.

시원해요. It is cool
추워요. It’s cold.

지 않다 korean negation

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