Korean grammar 을 를

을를 grammar

In this lesson, we will learn how these particles (을를) are actually used in Korean sentences, how to make Korean sentence and how to structure a sentence using these particles. 을를 is an object particle. These particles are used many times in daily life and 을/를 attaches after a noun. We have already learned 은는 이가 grammar in the previous lesson.

When should I use 을를 grammar?

is used when the word that comes before it ends with a consonant. is used when the word that comes before it ends with a vowel. For example

‘저는 밥을 먹어요.’ I have a meal.’    Here ‘을’ is attached after the noun ‘밥 (meal). When the noun has the final consonant, like ‘밥,’ ‘을’ is used. So it becomes ‘밥을.’ It shows that the object of the verb 먹어요 (have) is 밥 (meal).

‘저는 커피를 마셔요.’ I drink coffee. ‘를’ is attached after the noun ‘커피 (coffee)’. When the noun does not have the final consonant, like ‘커피,’ ‘를’ is used. So it becomes ‘커피를’. It shows that the object of the verb 마셔요 (drink) is 커피 (coffee).

when you speak, you can omit 을/를. For example-

You could say ‘밥 먹어요’ instead of 밥을 먹어요. and ‘커피 마셔요.’ instead of ‘커피를 마셔요’. Both are fine. The basic sentence structure for this particle is Noun 을/를 AV. For example-

  • 빵을 먹어요. I eat bread. Here 빵 has a final consonant “ㅇ”. So according to the rule that mentioned above we have to use 을.
  • 기타를 치다. Here 기타 has a vowel “ㅏ” at the ending so we have to use 를 particle. You must have prior knowledge of Korean noun to fully understand the use of these particles.

Now lets see some example sentence of 을를

  • 좋은 도구를 사용하라. Use better tools.
  • 오빠가 동생에게 밥을 먹였다. Big Brother fed rice to his small brother.
  • 어머니가 딸에게 유산을 남겼다. Mother left a legacy to her daughter.
  • 무엇을 마셔요? What are you drinking?
  • 커피를 마셔요. I’m drinking coffee.
  • 밥을 먹어요. I have a meal.
  • 여자는 치킨을 좋아해. The girl likes chicken.

을/를 비롯해서

을/를 비롯해 or 을/를 비롯하여 means originate in/with or included in. 을/를 비롯해서 is not used in daily life normally. It is mostly used in formal occasions and in a written language such as newspaper and academic writing. For example-

  • People can change, starting with me. 나를 비롯해서 사람들은 변화할 수 있어.
  • Many of these kids are recovering, including mine. 이 아이들 중 많은 아이들이 회복중이다, 내 아이를 비롯해서.
  • 이 음식은 비타민을 비롯하여 칼슘도 포함되어 있다. This food contains vitamin and calcium.

을를 차이

Let’s find out which one should we use either or .

  • 책 (book) The first word is ‘책 (book).’ Does ‘책’ have the final consonant or not? 책 has the final consonant. So, ‘을’ is attached, and it becomes ‘책을.’
  • 운동 (exercise) Does ‘동’ have the final consonant or not? It has the final consonant. What do we use after that?‘을’ is used. So it becomes ‘운동을.’
  • 영화 (film, movie) Does ‘영화’ have the final consonant or not? It does not have the final consonant. So ‘를’ is attached, and it becomes ‘영화를.’
  • 한국어 (Korean language) Does ‘어’ have the final consonant or not? It does not have the final consonant. What do we use after that? 를 is used. So, it becomes ‘한국어를.’
  • 노래 (song) Does 노래 have the final consonant or not? It does not have the final consonant. So, 를 is used. ‘노래를.’
  • 진우는 노래를 불러요. Jinu is singing a song.
  • 저는 한국어….. 배워요. (I, Korean, learn). What should be in the blank?’한국어”를 배워요’‘한국어 (Korean)’ does not have the final consonant. So ‘를’ is used.’저는 한국어를 배워요.’ I learn Korean.
  • When the noun has the final consonant, ‘을’ is used. They become ‘밥을, 책을, 운동을.’ On the other hand, when the noun does not have the final consonant, ‘를’ is used. So, they become ‘커피를, 영화를, 한국어를.’

    을/를 grammar

    Now let’s find out how today’s grammar is used in sentences.

    Minjo is wondering what Naun is doing. So she asks: “지금 뭐 해요?” “What are you doing now?”

    Naun replies: “밥을 먹어요.” I have a meal.

    This time, Naun is wondering what Minjo is drinking. So she asks: “무엇을 마셔요?” What are you drinking?

    Minjo replies: “커피를 마셔요.” I’m drinking coffee.

    Today’s grammar is used with nouns -‘밥을, 커피를.’ ‘을/를’ attaches after a noun.

    을를 indicates the preceding noun is the object affected by the verb and 을를 indicates the preceding noun is the object of the verb.

    을를 is the object particle. For example

    ‘저는 밥을 먹어요.’ I have a meal. ‘을’ is attached after the noun ‘밥 (meal).’ It shows that the object of the verb 먹어요 (have) is 밥 (meal).

    ‘저는 커피를 마셔요.’ I drink coffee. ‘를’ is attached after the noun ‘커피 (coffee).’ It shows that the object of the verb 마셔요 (drink) is 커피 (coffee).

    을를 grammar

    을/를 particle

    When the noun has the final consonant, ‘’ is used. ‘밥을, 책을, 운동을.’

    On the other hand, when the noun does not have the final consonant, ‘’ is used. ‘커피를, 영화를, 한국어를.’

    을를 practice

    Which one (을 or 를) should be used in the blank?

    ‘저 책…. 읽어요.’ I, a book, read. Which one should be in the blank?

    ‘책 (a book) has the final consonant.’ So, ‘을’ is used. ‘저는 책을 읽어요.’ I read the book.

    ‘나은 씨는 운동….? 해요.’ Naun, exercise, do. What should be in the blank?

    운동 (exercise) has the final consonant. So, ‘운동을 해요.’ ‘나은 씨는 운동을 해요.’ Naun is doing an exercise.

    민조는 노래…. 불러요.‘ Minjo, a song, sing. What should be in the blank? ‘노래 (a song) does not have the final consonant. ‘를’ is used. ‘노래를.’ ‘민조는 노래를 불러요.’ Minjo is singing a song.

    저는 한국어?…. 배워요.‘ I, Korean, learn. What should be in the blank?

    ‘한국어 (Korean)’ does not have the final consonant. So ‘를’ is used. ‘저는 한국어를 배워요.’ I learn Korean.

    Final practice

    Minjo asks Naun: “점심에 뭘 먹어요?” What do you have for lunch?

    Naun replies:  ‘비빔밥’ (Bibimbab)

    What would you say? What does she have?

    You can say “비빔밥을 먹어요.” (She has Bibimbab.)

    Minjo asks Naun: “지금 뭐 해요?” “What are you doing now?”

    Naun replies ‘책……읽어요.’ ‘book,?

    What should be in the blank?

    “책을 읽어요.” (I read a book.)

    Minjo asks again: 무슨 책을 읽어요? What kind of book are you reading?

    Naun replies 한국어 책…. 읽어요.

    Which sentence should be in the blank?

    한국어 책을 읽어요. (I’m reading a Korean book.)

    을를 grammar Conclusion

    Today, we’ve learned ‘noun-을/를.’

    을/를’ is the object particle. 을를 is attached after a noun. It indicates that the preceding noun is the object of the verb. ‘을/를 particle’ indicates the object.

    When the noun has the final consonant, ‘을’ is used. When the noun does not have the final consonant, ‘를’ is used.

    ‘저는 밥 먹어요 (I have a meal.)

    ‘저는 커피 마셔요.’ (I drink coffee.)