Today we are going to learn Korean grammar 으세요/세요. This grammar is used to speak politely or requests politely and it is also used to give suggestions or calling/naming in a well-mannered way.
First, let’s see some examples in Korean language (으세요, 세요 예문)
An employee is saying – 어서오세요, 주문 하시겠어요. (welcome, would you like to order).
저희 짜장면 이랑 짬뽕 주세요. Please give us 짜장면 and 짬뽕(짜장면 and 짬뽕 are names of Korean food used in restaurants).
In this example 오세요, 주세요 is used.
으세요/세요 is used after verb stem (동사의 어간 뒤에)and (으)세요 shows politeness in speaking, it is used for politely naming purpose also.
으세요/ 세요 is used in the informal situation (비격식적 상황) and 으십시오/ 십시오 is used in formal situations (격식적 상황).
하다= 하세요 = 하십시오
읽다 = 읽으세요 = 읽으십시오
오다 = 오세요 = 오십시오
마시다 = 마세요 = 마십시오
만들다 = 만드세요 = 만드십시오
으세요/ 세요 Usage
When do we use 으세요/ 세요? Let’s find out
If there is a final consonant 으세요 is used. 동사 어간에 받침이 있으면 으세요 를 사용합니다. Let’s see some examples
읽다 – to read
Remove 다 from 읽다, now 읽 remains which has final consonant. According to the rule if there is a final consonant we have to use 으세요. 읽다 becomes 읽으세요.
Opposite of that if there is no final consonant on verb stem we have to use 세요. 반대로 동사 어간에 받침이 없으면 세요를 사용해요. Example-
오다 -to come
Remove 다 from 오다, now 오 remains which has no final consonant. According to the rule if there is no final consonant we have to use 세요. 오다 becomes 오세요.
If there is a final consonant ‘ㄹ’, 세요 is used. 동사 어간에 ‘ㄹ’ 받침이 있으면 세요 를 사용합니다. Example –
만들다 – to make
Remove 다 from 만들다, now 만들 remains which has final consonant. According to rule if there is a final consonant we have to use 으세요 but if ‘ㄹ’ and ‘으’ combined ‘으’ get disappear (탈락하다 – Disappear, eliminate). Why 으 disappear do you want to know? See ㄹ 불규칙 grammar. After the disappearance of ‘으’, we have to combine 만들 with 세요. But when ‘ㄹ’ combined with ‘ㅅ’ letter ‘ㄹ’ gets disappeared. Now we have to combine 만드 and 세요. So 만들다 becomes 만드세요.
In a simple word if there is a ‘ㄹ’ we have to remove that ‘ㄹ’ and combine the remaining verb with 세요. Example –
놀다 – to play, have fun, take rest
뭐 하고 노세요? What do you do for fun?
Here in the above sentence we removed ㄹ and add the remaining part of the verb ‘노’ with 세요. So 놀다 becomes 노세요.
When the verb ending has (받침) final consonant we have to use 으세요.
웃다 – 웃으세요
When the verb ending has no (받침) final consonant we have to use 세요.
가다 = 가세요.
When the verb ending has ‘ㄹ’ (받침) final consonant we have to use 세요.
울다 – to cry / to weep
우세요? – Are you crying?
remove 다 now 울 has ㄹ consonant( ㄹ 받침) so we have to combine 세요. 울다 verb is conjugated into 우세요.
웃다 to smile
First, remove 다 now 웃 has consonant(받침)ㅅ so we have to combine 으세요. 웃다 verb is conjugated into 웃으세요.
주다 to give
First, remove 다 now 주 has no consonant at the end (받침) so we have to combine 세요. 주다 root verb is converted into 주세요.
들다 to eat
First, remove 다 now 들 has a consonant at the end (받침) so according to the rule we have to remove 다 and ㄹ and combine 세요 with 드. 들다 root verb is conjugated into 드세요.
으세요/세요 Examples 예문
Let’s see some examples and find out how today’s grammar is used.
여기에 앉다. = 여기에 앉으세요. Sit here
숙제를 하고 게임을 하다. = 숙제를 하고 게임을 하세요. Do homework and play a game.
저녁을 먹다 / 저녁을 들다. 먹다 and 들다 both means eat but 들다 shows more politeness and hierarchy and it is used with someone who is higher than us or someone who is more respectful.
저녁을 먹으세요 / 저녁을 드세요. Both means please have dinner.
How do I get to Seoul Station? 서울역에 어떻게 가요?
Go straight this way. 이 길로 쭉 가세요.
The patient is talking to the Doctor. 환자가 의사 선생님에게 이야기합니다
I have a cold. 감기에 걸렸어요.
Take medicine and take rest. 약 되시고 푹 쉬세요
- 받침 있으면 – 으세요. (When a verb stem has the final consonant – 으세요.)
읽다 – 읽으세요.
2. 받침 없으면 – 세요. (When a verb stem has no final consonant – 세요.)
자다 – 자세요.
3. ‘ㄹ’ 받침 있으면 – 세요 (When a verb stem has ‘ㄹ’ final consonant – 세요.)
팔다 – 파세요
(으)십시오 is the kindest and highest regards in Korean culture. This Korean sentence ending “-(으)십시오 (not -(으)십시요)” is often used in written form and it is regarded as a more honorific form than “-(으)세요”.
~십시오 is a very formal and official term to use. Normally Korean don’t use this ~십시오 in daily life and to people who are familiar.
Goodbye. 안녕히 가십시오.
Please come in. 어서 오십시오.
Be careful. 조심하십시오.
please be seated.앉으십시오.
Good night 안녕히 주무십시오.
Please come inside. 들어오십시오
Please, keep quiet. 조용히 하십시오.
Please move forward. 앞으로 가십시오.
Happy new year 새해 복 많이 받으십시오.
존댓말 vs 반말
존댓말 is more respectful. It is used to give respect to another person. It is Used in Formal situations like meeting, news broadcast etc. It shows more politeness and hierarchy and it is used with someone who is higher than you or someone who is more respectful. You should use (존댓말) jondaenmal with older ones, teacher, unknown person, manager, team leader, Boss etc
반말 (banmal) is less respectful used casually with family members, friends, younger ones etc. It is used in informal situations.
Don’t give up.
포기하지 마십시오 – Highly respectful/ formal. (존댓말) jondaenmal.
포기하지 마세요. – Moderate respectful/ Formal. (존댓말) jondaenmal.
포기하지 마라. – Less respectful/ Informal. (반말) banmal.
절대로 담배를 피우지 마십시오. – Highly respectful/ formal. (존댓말) jondaenmal.
절대로 담배를 피우지 마세요. – Moderate respectful/ Formal. (존댓말) jondaenmal.
절대로 담배를 피우지 마라. – Less respectful/ Informal. (반말) banmal.
Don’t go there
거기 가지 마십시오 – Highly respectful. (존댓말) jondaenmal.
거기가지 마세요 – Moderate respectful/ Formal. (존댓말) jondaenmal.
거기 가지 마라 – Less respectful/ Informal. (반말) banmal.
으세요/세요 (으)십시오 summary
A summary is 마무리 in the Korean language. Today, we learned Korean grammar 으세요/세요. It is used after the verb ending or verb stem.
으세요/세요 is used in informal situations(비격식적) and it is used to politely request or politely command.
으십시오/십시오 is used in formal situations (비격식적). The negative form of 마십시오 is ….지 마십시오.
이것을 먹지 마십시오. Please don’t eat this.
건드리지 마십시오. Don’t touch me.
놀라지 마십시오. Don’t be surprised.
움직이지 마십시오. Don’t move.