Home grammar Noun modifier (으)ㄴ/는 complete study

Noun modifier (으)ㄴ/는 complete study

4
Noun modifier (으)ㄴ/는 complete study

Basic Korean Grammar (으)ㄴ/는

(으)ㄴ/는 attaches after adjective stems and it functions to modify the following nouns. And it shows the state of the noun. Let’s see example sentences

We have already learned about the use of Verb 은/ㄴ in korean grammar lesson but today we will learn the use of 은/ㄴ with an adjective.

 ‘Adjective-은/ㄴ Noun.’ = A 은/ㄴ N

“저기 키가 큰 사람이 지누 씨예요.” That person is Jinu who is tall.
“저기 키가 크고 짧은 치마를 입은 사람이 맞아요?” Is it that person who is tall and wearing a short skirt?

‘큰 (tall), 짧은 (short).which are adjectives. Both words modify the following nouns: ‘사람 (person,’ ‘치마 (skirt).

‘지누 씨는 짧은 치마를 입었어요.’ Jinu wore a short skirt.
When you look at ‘짧은,’ ‘은’ attaches after the adjective ‘짧다 (to be short)’ and ‘짧은’ modify the following noun ‘치마 (a skirt).

‘지누 씨는 키가 큰 사람이에요.’ ‘Jinu is a person who is tall.’
When you look at ‘큰’, ‘ㄴ’ attaches after the adjective ‘크다 (to be tall, to be big)’.‘큰’ modifies the following noun ‘사람 (a person.)’

‘지누 씨는 재미있는 친구에요.’ Jinu is my friend who is funny and interesting.
When you look at ‘재미있는’. ‘는’ attaches after the adjective ‘재미있다 (to be funny, interesting).’
‘재미있는’ modifies the following noun ‘친구 (friend).’

(으)ㄴ/는 usage

When do we use ‘은, ㄴ, 는?’ Let’s find out together.

If the adjective stem has a final consonant, ‘은’ is used.

짧다 (to be short)
Remove ‘다’ from the basic form. There is the final consonant in the stem. Then ‘은’ is used after that.
So, 짧다 becomes 짧은.

작다 (to be small)
Remove 다 from 작다 now it becomes 작. There is the final consonant in the adjective stem which is ㄱ. Then, ‘은’ is used after that.
So, ‘작다’ becomes ‘작은.’

If there is no final consonant in the adjective stem, ‘ㄴ’ is used.

크다 (to be tall, big)
Remove 다 from 크다, now it becomes 크. There is no final consonant in the stem of 크다. So, ‘ㄴ’ is used after that.
So, ‘크다’ becomes ‘큰.’

예쁘다 (to be pretty, beautiful)
Remove ‘다’from 예쁘다 now it becomes 예쁘. There is no final consonant in ‘쁘’.Then ‘ㄴ’ is added after that.
So, ‘예쁘다’ becomes ‘예쁜.

If an adjective ends with ‘있다/없다’, ‘는’ is used.

재미있다 (to be funny, interesting)
It ends with ‘있다.’ Remove ‘다’ from 재미있다 now it becomes ‘재미있. ‘는’ is attached after that.
So it becomes ‘재미있는.’

재미없다 (not to be funny)
It ends with ‘없다.’ Remove ‘다’ and attach ‘는’ after 없
It becomes ‘재미없는.’

ㅂ irregular adjective conjugation

‘춥다 (to be cold) becomes ‘추운’
‘덥다’ (to be hot) becomes ‘더운’
‘가볍다’ (to be light) becomes ‘가벼운’
‘무겁다’ (to be heavy) becomes ‘무거운’
‘즐겁다’ (to be joyful) becomes ‘즐거운’
‘어렵다’ (to be difficult) becomes ‘어려운’
‘쉽다’ (to be easy) becomes ‘쉬운’
‘아름답다’ (to be beautiful) becomes ‘아름다운’
‘맵다’ (to be spicy) becomes 매운
‘곱다'(to be fine) becomes ‘고운’

ㄹ irregular adjective conjugation

When the verb/adjective stems which end with ‘ㄹ’ is followed by the endings which begin with ‘ㄴ, ㅂ, ㅅ,’ ㄹ’ is deleted.

Another rule is that, when the verb/adjective stems which end with ‘ㄹ’ is followed by the endings which begin with the vowel ‘으’ ‘ㄹ’ remains but the vowel ‘으’ is deleted.

You can review the Korean Grammar Lesson  ‘ㄹ’ 불규칙

길다 (to be long)
Remove ‘다.’ There is the final consonant ‘ㄹ.’ Then, ‘은’ is used after that.
But, when ‘ㄹ’ meets the vowel ‘으’, ‘으’ is deleted. Then ‘길’ and ‘ㄴ’ remains.
Again, the final consonant ‘ㄹ’ meets ‘ㄴ.’ This time, ‘ㄹ’ is deleted.
So, ‘길다’ becomes ‘긴.’

In simple words

Attach ‘ㄴ’ after ‘ㄹ’ irregular adjectives. ‘ㄹ’ is deleted, and ‘ㄴ’ remains. So, it becomes ‘긴.’

멀다 (to be far, distant)
Remove ‘다.’ There is the final consonant ‘ㄹ.’
Add ‘ㄴ’ after that and, delete ‘ㄹ.’ Then ‘ㄴ’ becomes the final consonant. So, it becomes ‘먼.’

If you don’t understand the rule just remember these words.

‘멀다’ (to be far, distant) becomes ‘먼’
‘길다’ (to be long) becomes ‘긴’
‘달다’ (to be sweet) becomes ‘단’
‘둥글다’ (to be round) becomes ‘둥근’
‘어질다’ (to be benevolent) becomes ‘어진’

irregular adjective conjugation

When the adjective stem ending with ‘ㅎ’ meets the vowel ‘으’. Both ‘ㅎ’ and ‘으’ are deleted.

하얗다 (to be white)
Remove ‘다’, then there is the final consonant ‘ㅎ’. ‘은’ is used when there is the final consonant. But, when the final consonant ‘ㅎ’ meets the vowel ‘으,’ both of them are deleted. So, it becomes ‘하얀.’

In simple words
Remove ‘ㅎ’ from ‘ㅎ’ irregular adjective, and attach ‘ㄴ’ after that (하얗다 = 하얀)

까맣다 (to be black)
Remove ‘다.’ There is the final consonant ‘ㅎ.’ Then, delete ‘ㅎ’ and add ‘ㄴ.’ It becomes ‘까만.’

‘하얗다’ (to be white) becomes ‘하얀’
‘까맣다’ (to be black) becomes ‘까만’
‘노랗다’ (to be yellow) becomes ‘노란’
‘파랗다’ (to be blue) becomes ‘파란’

Most adjectives which have the final consonant ‘ㅎ’ are conjugated irregularly except, 좋다 (to be good) which is conjugated regularly. ‘좋다’ is the regular adjective.

좋다 (To be good)
Remove ‘다.’ There is the final consonant. So, ‘은’ is added after that. It becomes ‘좋은.’

(으)ㄴ는 Noun Modifier (으)ㄴ는
(으)ㄴ/는

관형형 (으)ㄴ/는 example

슬픈 영화 좋아해요?” Do you like sad movies?
어제 맛있는 음식을 먹었어요. I had delicious food.
저는 맑은 날씨를 좋아해요. like clear (sunny) weather.
저는 재미있는 영화를 좋아해요.” No, I like funny movies.
무서운 영화 볼까요?” Would you like to see horror movies?
따뜻한 커피 좀 사다 주세요. Please buy and bring me a hot coffee.

맑다 (Clear) = 맑은
슬프다(to be sad) = 슬픈
재미있다 (to be funny) = 재미있는
따뜻하다 (to be warm) = 따뜻한
무섭다 (to be horrible = 무서운
재미있다 (To be fun) = 재미있는

관형형 (으)ㄴ/는 summary

When the adjective stem has the final consonant, ‘은’ is used. ‘짧다’ becomes ‘짧은.’
when the adjective stem does not have the final consonant, ‘ㄴ’ is used. ‘크다’ becomes ‘큰.’
when the adjectives end with ‘있다/없다’. Remove ‘다’ and add ‘는.’ So, ‘재미있다’ becomes ‘재미있는.’

ㅂ 불규칙 (ㅂ irregular verb) case

When the verb/adjective stem ends with ‘ㅂ’ followed by the vowel, ㅂ’ changes to the vowel ‘오/우’
You can review the Korean Grammar Lesson ㅂ 불규칙.

When the ‘ㅂ’ irregular adjectives meet ‘은/ㄴ’, how do they change?
In the case of the ‘ㅂ’ irregular adjectives, first, change the final consonant ‘ㅂ’ into ‘우. Then, add ‘ㄴ’ after that.

덥다 (to be hot)
Remove ‘다’, then there is the final consonant ‘ㅂ.’ Change ‘ㅂ’ into 우 and add ‘ㄴ’ after that. It becomes ‘더운.’

춥다 (to be cold)
Remove ‘다’, then there is the final consonant ‘ㅂ.’ Change ‘ㅂ’ into 우 and add ‘ㄴ’ after that. It becomes ‘추운.’

4 COMMENTS

LEAVE A REPLY

Please enter your comment!
Please enter your name here