요 meaning, usage and conjugation
Most Korean sentence ends with the 요 form. Korean people use this form in polite conversations. Here are some examples of ~ 요 form
To go 가다 – 가요
To come 오다 – 와요
To sleep 자다 – 자요
To eat 먹다 – 먹어요
To love사랑하다 – 사랑해요
In case of 가다, 오다 and 자다 you need to remove 다 and add 아요 and become -가요, 와요, 자요. In case of 먹다, you have to remove 다 and add 어요 and it becomes 먹어요. In case of 사랑하다, you need to remove 다, 하 becomes 해요.
You need to be aware of various patterns of verbs and adjectives when using the 요 form. In hangul, there are two types of vowels – the positive vowels and the negative vowels. ㅏ,ㅑ,ㅗ,ㅛ are positive vowels and rest ㅓ, ㅕ, ㅜ, ㅠ, ㅡ, ㅣ vowels are negative vowels.
All Korean verbs and adjectives end in 다 form in their original form. The letter before 다 is called the stem. For example, 놀다 (to play) has 놀 before 다. 놀 is a verb stem.
요 conjugation rule
If the verb stem has a positive vowel and the verb stem has a final consonant, add 아요.
살다 (To live) = 살 + 아요 = 살아요. ㅏ is the positive vowel and ㄹ is a final consonant, so 아요 is used 살 + 아요 = 살아요.
좋다 (To be good) = ㅗ is a positive vowel and ㅎ is a final consonant. so 아요 is used 좋아요.
보다 (To look) has no final consonant but it has a positive vowel ㅗ, so 아요 is used and become 봐요.
오다 (To come) has no final consonant but it has a positive vowel ㅗ, so 아요 is used and become 와요.
If a verb stem has a negative vowel (ㅓ, ㅕ, ㅜ, ㅠ, ㅡ, ㅣ) and a final consonant add 어요. If the stem has one of these vowels you add 어요. And if there is no final consonant in the 으 irregular you add 어요.
먹다 (To eat) 먹 has negative vowels ㅓ and final consonant so ㅓ요 is used 먹어요.
만들다 (To make) 만들 + 어요 = 만들어요.
When there is no final consonant and diphthongs other than ㅐ, ㅔ, ㅚ, you add 어요. For example-
쉬다 (to eat) – 쉬어요.
When there is no final consonant and vowel ㅓ,ㅕ, ㅐ,ㅔ in a verb stem it becomes 요.
서다(To stand) = 서요
켜다 (To turn on) = 켜요
보내다 (To send) = 보내요
세다 (To be strong) = 세요
When there is no final consonant and vowel
ㅜ + ㅓ = ㅝ+요
ㅚ + ㅓ = ㅙ+요
배우다 (To learn) 배워요
되다 (To become) 돼요
When there is no final consonant and vowel ㅣ, change ㅣ to ㅕ + 요.
마시다 (To drink) = 마셔요
버리다 (To throw away) = 버려요
When verb ended with 하다 ending. 하 changes into 해요.
일하다 (To work) = 일해요
사랑하다 (To love) = 사랑공부
공부하다 (To study) = 공부공부
When the final consonant is ㄷ irregular, ㄷ change into ㄹ.
ㄷ = ㄹ+아요
깨닫다 (to realize) = 깨달아요. (ㅏ is a positive vowel)
듣다 (To listen) = 들어요. (ㅡ is a negative vowel)
When the final consonant is irregularㅂ, it changes into 워요. ㅂ is removed and 워요 is used.
고맙다 (To thank) = 고마워요
가볍다 (To be light) = 가벼워요
When the final consonant is irregular ㅅ, it changes into 아요 if there is a positive vowel and it changes into 어요 if there is a negative vowel.
낫다 ( To get cured) = 나요/ 나아요
Remove ㅅ, there is a positive vowel so 아요 is used.
짓다 (To build) = 지어요
Remove ㅅ, there is a negative vowel so 어요 is used.
When the final consonant is irregular ㅎ, it changes into ㅐ요 if there is a positive vowel and it changes into ㅔ요 if there is a negative vowel.
빨갛다 (Red) = 빨개요
Remove ㅎ and add ㅐ요 because there is a positive vowel ㅏ.
누렇다 (Yellowish) = 누레요
Remove ㅎ and add ㅔ요 because there is a negative vowel ㅓ.
When the final consonant of the stem is irregular 으, it changes into 아요 if the letter before ㅡ is a positive vowel and it changes into 어요 if the letter before ㅡ is a negative vowel. The key point is that it is the letter before the stem.
나쁘다 (To be bad) = 나빠요
The letter before 쁘 is ㅏ which is a positive vowel so you have to add 아요.
기쁘다 (To be happy) = 기뻐요
The letter before the ㅡ is l (기) which is a negative vowel so ㅓ요 is used.
If there is no preceding letter, you just have to use ㅓ요. For example-
쓰다 (To write) = 써요
When the final consonant of the stem is irregular 르, it changes into ㄹ+아요 if the letter before 르 is a positive vowel and it changes into ㄹ+어요 if the letter before 르 is a negative vowel.
You have to add ㄹ as a final consonant to the letter that comes before a stem. For example-
모르다 (To not know.) = 몰라요
The vowel before 르 is ㅗ (모) which is a positive vowel so 모르다 becomes 몰라요.
누르다 (To push) = 눌러요
The vowel before 르 is ㅜ (누) which is a negative vowel so 누르다 becomes 눌러요.