korean grammar list

 How to learn 에 grammar completely?

   Today we are going to learn 에 grammar and its usage in conversation. Korean particle 에 has many meanings according to its usage. Today we will cover the main usages of 에. 

    Let’s start with an example first. Here is a conversation between Minjo and Nauna.

 Minjo asks to Nauna: 금요일에 뭐예요?

Nauna replies (나으나 씨가 대답해요): 금요일에 친구를 만나요

Here in this conversation, we learned today’s grammar 에.

에 meaning (에 particle) –

 에 is a particle used in Korean sentences. It is attached after a noun. It is used after a time or place nouns. 에 means at/in/on the time in English.

n + 에 grammar

Here are some examples of how 에 is used after a noun.

  1. 오늘 오후
  2. 이번 주 월요일에
  3. 내년에
  4. 한국에
  5. 아침에, 학교에
  6. 다음 주 금요일 4시에

when to use 에

Whether the preceding word ending has a final consonant or not 에 is used.

 Now let’s see how and when to use 에 in the Korean language.

  1.  에 with time에 is used for any words related to date and time. For example-

일요일에 만나요.  Meet on Sunday.

Here Sunday is a day which is related to time so 에 is used.

크리스마스에 쉬어요. Take rest (Day off) on Christmas. 

Here Christmas also means a day so 에 is used here.

2. 에 with place

에 means to in English and it is also used to show a specific location where something/ someone exists. 에 also means to be, at, to, on or in. 에 is used with 있어요/없어요 which means something or someone is at/on/in a place.

It is also used with 가요(go)/와요(come)/다녀요(attend). Let’s see some examples

나으나 씨 어디에 가요? Nauna where are you going?

화장실에 가요. I am going to the restroom.

저는 지금 학교에 가요. Now I am going to school.

Whether there is a final consonant (받침) or not 에 is used.명사의 받침 있어요 받침 없어요 모두 에 를 사용합니다.

에 grammar Exceptional cases

  1. 에 can not be used with 어제 (yesterday), 오늘 (today), tomorrow (내일), now(지금). For example-

Question (질문)- 어제 뭐 했어요?

Reply (대답)- 어제 영화를 봤어요.

We can not say 어제에 영화를 봤어요.

  1. We can use 에는 while referring or mentioning that time already. For example-

민조: 주말에 뭐 했어요?

 나으나: 주말에 친구를 만났어요.

Here 주말 is used first in question so we can use 에는 also. By using 에는 the sentence looks more natural. We can also use 주말에는 친구를 만났어요.

  1. You can not use 에 on the first time noun. If there are more than 2 time related nouns. For example-

다음 주 금요일 4시에 결혼해요. Next week Friday 4 pm is the wedding.

This sentence has more than two-time nouns  (주, 금요일, 4시) and is used on the last noun only.

Examples

  1. 내일 한 시에  만나요
  2. 저는 매일 아침에 운동 해요.
  3. 작년 한국에 왔어요. 
  4. 작년에 한국에 왔어요
  5. 보통 여름에 휴가를 가요.

Minjo: 일요일에 시간이 있어요? 같이 영화 볼까요? Are you free on Sunday? Should we watch a movie together?

Naeuna: 좋아요, 몇 시에 볼까요?

Good, What time shall we see?

This time Naeuna is asking: 설날에 뭐 먹어요? What do you eat on New Year’s Day?

민조: 설날에는 떡국을 먹어요. On New Year’s Day, we eat rice cake soup.

 떡국을 언제 먹어요?

설날에 먹어요.

떡국은 설날에는 먹는 대표적인 음식입니다. Rice cook soup is typical food for new year’s day.

그래서 설날을 강조해서 에는 을 사용했어요. 조금 더 자연스러워요. So 에는 is used to highlight New Year’s Day.  It’s a bit more natural also.

We can use 설날에 떡국을 먹어요 also.

에게 grammar

It is translated as “to” and “by.”  in English. 에게 is used to say “To someone or to some living creatures” but for Things plants time and place 에 is used. 에게 is added to nouns to represent human or animals. It has the same meaning as has but they are used in different situations. Meaning of 에게 changes according to verbs and it has many usages also. Click here to learn more about 에게/한테/께

어제 친구에게 책을 주었어요. Yesterday I gave a book to a friend.

대신에 grammar

       대신에 is can be used after a noun, a verb and an adjective. But there are some rules while using 대신에 with nouns, verbs and adjectives. We have made a separate chapter of 대신에 if you want to read that visit grammar section of this website.

대신에 영어 – 대신에 is instead of n English.

Here are some examples of 대신에

이거 대신에 = instead of this

연필 대신에 = instead of a pencil

저는 우유 대신에 주스를 마시고 싶어요 Instead of milk, I want to drink the juice.

밥을 먹는 대신에 빵을 먹을 거예요 Instead of eating rice, I will eat bread.

그럼 내가 이거 가져다 주는 대신에 맛있는 빕 점심 사줘야 돼. Then I will bring it to you. Instead, you have to buy a delicious lunch(rice). 

에 대한 grammar

에 대한 means “about” in English. It has the same meaning as 에 대해서 / 대해 has. 에 대한 is followed by a noun and 에대해서 is followed by a verb. 에 대한 and 에 관한 are used interchangeably but they have slightly different meanings. Some example are – 

The story about the new finance minister. 새로운 재무장관에 대한 이야기이다.

나에 대한? = About me?

동물에 대한 책 = A book about animals.

법률에 대한 책 = A book about Rule

질문에 대한 대답 = Answer about a question

Difference Between Particles 에 and 에서 (에 에서)

First, let’s talk about similarities. Both 에 에서 are location markers and placed at the end of the noun.

     Both 에 에서 have so many different meanings and usages. This time we are going to study about 에 에서 with location marker.

에 grammar

       Korean grammar 에 is the location marker for the state or the Existence of something and 에서 is the location marker for an action.

      The difference lies in the verb that follows the particles so depending on which verb you’re using you will either be using or 에서.

      The verb that follows is most likely going to be a descriptive verb because it’s the location marker for the

state or the existence of something it’s not a particular action that you can add an ING to. So the most common verb that will be used after is 있다, 없다 and 살다.For example-

 저는 집에 있어요. I’m at home. (The sentence is saying the presence or existence of I at home it is not showing any action so 에 is used.)

공원에 꽃이 많아요. There are many flowers in the park. (Flower are not doing anything they are just staying so 에 is used.)

    Note: If a clause has only verb in the form of be (is/ am/ are/ was/ were) there is a high chance of using 에.

에서 grammar

It is followed by an action verb. And 에서 also connects after nouns. Let’s see some examples- 

저는 집에서 자요. I sleep at home. (In this sentence I am sleeping which is one action verb so 에서 used.)

학교에서 한국어 공부를 해요. (I) study Korean in the school. (study is also an action verb so 에서 is used.)

      Another difference between 에 and 에서 is that is used for destination point and 에서 is used for a starting point. We can use 에 as “to” (going, arriving) and 에서 as from.

저는 어제 서울 갔어요. I went to Seoul yesterday.

저는 어제 서울에서 왔어요. I came from Seoul yesterday.

여수 도착해요. Arrive at Yeosu.

여수에서 출발해요. Depart from Yeosu.

에 grammar Summary 

Today we learned about . Itis used with time and place nouns.

The final consonant of nouns has no role in the use of . (명사의 바침 있어요 없어요 모두 에 를 사용해요.)

Some limitations on the use of 에 are- 

  1. We can not use with 언제, 지금, 오늘, 어제, 내일, 매일,매주, 매달, 매년.

2. When you have already talked about it or want to emphasize it, you can use 에는. (이미 이야기한 시간이나 그 시간을 강조하고 싶을 때는 에는 을 사용할 수 있다고 했습니다.)

10 Easiest Way To Learn 에 Grammar ! - Learn Korean

 에 grammar- 에 is a Korean particle. It is attached after a time/place noun. In this lesson we will learn 에 meaning, When to use 에, 에 에서, 에 대한 grammar, 에게 grammar

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