안 is used just before the verb and it has a role to negate the verb. For example, if we add 안 before 자다(sleep) it becomes 안 자다 (not sleep).
공부하다 (To study) = 공부안하다
자다 To sleep — 안 + 자다
먹다 To eat — 안 + 먹다
먹다 앞에 안 을 붙여서 안 먹다가 됩니다.
If we add 안 before 숙제하다 what will be the result?
No, it is not correct. 숙제하다 is made up of 숙제 and 하다. 숙제 is noun and 하다 is a verb, so according to rule 안 should be used before the verb, the correct answer will be 숙제안하다. If a verb ends with 하다 we have to use 안 just before of 하다.
Another example is 작업하다 / To work 작업하다 is a combined word of 작업 and 하다.작업 is noun and 하다 is a verb. 명사 작업과 동사 하다가 합쳐진 단어입니다
We have to put 안 in between 명사 작업 and 동사 하다 so it becomes 작업 안하다.
Another example is 청소하다.
It is a combined word of noun 청소 and verb 동사 하다.
Likewise (마찬가지로)we have to put 안 in between noun 명사 청소 and verb 동사 하다.
안 청소하다 is a incorrect expression. 안 운동하다 는 틀린 표현이에요.
청소안하다 is a correct expression.
공부하다 (To study)
No, it is not correct. 공부하다 is made up of 공부 and 하다. 공부 is noun and 하다 is a verb so according to rule 안 should be used before the verb, the correct answer will be 공부안하다. If a verb ends with 하다 we have to use 안 just before of 하다.
일하다 / To work
일하다 is a combined word of 일 and 하다.일 is noun and 하다 is a verb. 명사 일과 동사 하다가 합쳐진 단어입니다 We have to put 안 in between 명사 일 and 동사 하다 so it becomes 일안하다.
It is a combined word of noun 운동 and verb 동사 하다. Likewise (마찬가지로)we have to put 안 in between noun 명사 운동 and verb 동사 하다. 안 운동하다 is not a correct expression. 안 운동하다 는 틀린 표현이에요.
Let’s look at how 안 verb is used in the Korean sentences.
A:지금 자요? Are you sleeping now?
B: 아니요, 안 자요.
No, I’m not sleeping.
잠을 자다 sleep.
저는 집에서 공부 해 요 I do study at home.
저는 집에서 공부 안 해 요. I don’t do study at home.
저는 도서관에서 자요. I sleep at the library.
저는 도서관에서 안자요. I don’t sleep at the library.
A: 커피를 마셔요 ? Do you drink coffee?
B: 커피를 안 마셔요. I don’t drink coffee.
공원에서 운동해요? Do you exercise at the park?
B: 공원에서 운동 안 해요. I don’t do exercise at the park
A: 커피를 마셔요?
B: 아니요 ……..저는 녹차를 마셔요
빈칸에 무슨 말이 들어갈 수 있죠? What should be in a blank?
아니요 안 마셔요 is the correct answer
A: 오늘 공부해요?
B: 아니요 …….저는 오늘 친구를 만나요
공부 안 해요 is correct
“못” vs “안”
It’s really confusing for foreigners to know the difference between 안 and 못 because they seem to be very similar. 안 and 못 both are in the same position in the Korean sentence structure. 안 and 못 have a very similar meaning but they don’t have the same meaning.
The main difference that you need to know about both안 and 못 is that they both mean that I will not do it but 못 means I will not do it because I can’t do it and 안 means I will not do it because I don’t want to do it. Let’s see some examples-
나는 오토바이를 안타고 싶어. I don’t want to ride a motorbike.
나는 오토바이를 못타.= I can’t ride a motorcycle.
Both mean the person won’t ride a bike. 안타고 싶어 means the person has an intention to not to ride a bike and 못타 means the person has no ability to ride a bike (inability might be that person don’t know how to ride a bike or he might have some external reasons to not ride a bike). Learn more about 못 particle
안 Korean grammar Summary
안 is used to change the negation of any verb or 안 change the form of the verb in a negative way.
In normal verbs, 안 is used just before the verb
자다 – 안 자다
If the verb is 하다 verb, 안 is used just before 하다.
공부하다 – 공부 안 하다.
In other words
All normal verbs have 안 at their beginning and All verbs with 하다 have 안 before the 하다. Look at the table for clear understanding.
|안 V||N 안 verb|
|자다 = 안 자다||공부 하다 = 공부 안하다|
|먹다 = 안 먹다||비곤 하다 = 비곤 안 하다|
Till now we have studied Basic verb (동사 기본형) negation of verb (부정형) and use of these verbs at the current time (현재 형).
|기본형||부정형||현재 형- V 아요/어요,해요|
|울다 To cry||안 울다 Not to cry||안 울어요. Not crying|
|웃다 smile||안 웃다 No smile||안 웃어요. Not smiling|
|공부 하다 study||공부 안 하다 No study||공부 안해요. Not studying|
let’s summarise ‘안 Adjective/Verb.’
‘안’ is used to negate the following adjective/verb. For example,
저는 안 자요. (I am not sleeping.)
Here, ‘안 자요’ is a combination of ‘안’ and the verb ‘자요 (to sleep).’
Am I sleeping now?
No. I am not sleeping It negates the verb ‘자다.’
그 옷은 안 예뻐요. (The dress is not pretty.)
Here, ‘안 예뻐요’ is a combination of ‘안’ and the adjective ‘예뻐요 (to be pretty).’
Is this dress pretty?
No. It is not pretty. It negates the adjective ‘예쁘다 (to be pretty).’
오늘은 공부 안 해요. (I do not study today.)
Here, ‘공부 안 해요’ is an expression that combines ‘안’ between the verbs ‘공부’ and ‘하다’.
Do I study today?
No. 오늘은 공부 안 해요. (I do not study today.) It negates the verb ‘공부하다.’
And in the case of an adjective/verb in the form of ‘Noun-하다’, the position of ‘안’ is different depending on the part of speech.
For example, when you look at the verb 공부하다 (to study), and the adjective 건강하다 (to be health)
they are expressions that combine ‘Noun’ and the verb ‘하다.’
In the case of the verb ‘공부하다’, ‘안’ goes between ‘noun’ and ‘하다.’
So you can say ‘공부 안 하다.’ This is correct.
If you say ‘안 공부하다’, it’s wrong.
On the other hand, in the case of the adjective ‘건강하다’, ‘안’ goes before ‘건강하다.’
So you can say ‘안 건강하다’, and this is correct.
If you say ‘건강 안 하다’, it’s wrong.
Please use it with caution.
Let’s look at the combination information.
Whether an adjective/verb stem has the final consonant or not, ‘안’ goes before ‘adjective/verb.’
When you look at the verb ‘먹다 (to eat)’, there is the final consonant. Use ‘안’ before the verb. So you can say ‘안 먹다.’
When you look at the verb ‘오다 (to come)’, there is no final consonant. Then, use ‘안’ before the adjective. So you can say ‘안 오다.’
Let’s sum up by reading the example sentences.
저는 안 자요.
그 옷은 안 예뻐요.
오늘은 공부 안 해요.
공부 안 하다.