아/어/해 주다 grammar lesson
Today, we’re going to learn ‘Verb-아/어/해 주다.’ The word 주다 means to give and if we use it with verbs it means to do something for someone.
‘어/어/해 주다’ attaches after the verb stem and it indicates an action is performed for someone. It is an expression that an action is performed for someone.
창문 좀 닫아 줄까요? May I close the window for you?
네 창문 좀 닫아주세요. Yes, please close the window.
When you look at 닫아 주세요, the verb ‘닫다 (to close)’ is followed by ‘아 주세요.’ It’s an expression that I politely request you to close the window for me.
창문 좀 열어 줄까요? May I open the window for you?
When you look at ‘열어 줄까요?, the verb ‘열다 (to open) is followed by’어줄까요.’ It’s an expression that I suggest to open the window for someone else.
천천히 말해 주세요. Please speak slowly.
When you look at ‘말해 주세요,’, the verb ‘말하다 (to speak/talk)’ is followed by ‘여 주세요.’ It’s an expression that I request you to speak slowly for me.
아/어/해 주다 grammar rule
If there is a vowel ‘ㅏ’ or ‘ㅗ’ in the stem, ‘아 주다’ is used.
닫다 (to close)
Delete ‘다’ from the basic form. There is the vowel ‘ㅏ’ in front of ‘다.’ Then, ‘아 주다’ is used. So, ‘닫다’ becomes ‘닫아 주다.’
If the vowel in the stem is other than ‘ㅏ or ㅗ’, then ‘-어 주다’ is used.
열다 (to open)
Delete ‘다’ and there is the vowel ‘ㅕ’ in front of ‘다.’ ‘ㅕ’ is not either ‘ㅏ’ or ‘ㅗ.’ So ‘어 주다’ is used. So ‘열다’ becomes ‘열어 주다.’
하다 is the root form of 해 주다. Delete ‘다’, and add ‘여 주다.’
Then, ‘하다’ becomes ‘하여 주다.’ Here, ‘하’ and ‘여’ are combined to become ‘해.’ So, ‘하다’ becomes ‘해 주다.’ You don’t need to remember this process of conjugation. Just remember that ‘하다’ always change into ‘해 주다.’
말하다 (to speak/to talk)
You can use ‘해 주다’ instead of ‘하다.’ So, ‘말하다’ becomes ‘말해 주다.’
아/어/해 주다 grammar conjugation
when do we actually use this grammar? let’s find out together.
Lets conjugate the verbs ‘닫다, 열다, 하다 using ‘아/어/해 주다’ and ‘어요, 세요, ㄹ까요? 었어요.’
We can add a word ‘좀 (kindly/ please)’ with ‘아/어/해 주다.’ ‘좀’ is normally used in front of ‘아/어/해 주다.’ It helps to make the speaker’s voice more polite and soft (kind). For example-
전화번호 알려 주세요. (Let me know your mobile number.) You can add ‘좀’ in front of ‘알려 주세요. So you can ask it more politely. 전화번호 좀 알려주세요. (Please let me know your mobile number.)
There is some exceptional case of this grammar also.
듣다 = 들어 주다 (ㄷirregular conjugation)
돕다 = 도와 주다 (ㅂ irregular)
자르다 = 잘라 주다 (ㄹ irregular)
짓다 = 지어 주다 (ㅅ irregular)
쓰다 = 써 주다 (으 disappear)
아/어/해 주다 grammar example
You can use ‘좀’ to say more politely and softly (kindly). Now, let’s look at some more examples.
사진 좀 찍어 주세요. (Please take a picture for me.)
책 좀 읽어 주세요. (Please read a book for me.)
조용히 좀해 주세요. (Please be quiet for me.)
가방 좀 들어 줄까요? If you don’t mind, may I hold your bag?
‘커피 좀 (사다+아/어/해 주다+세요)’ = ‘Coffee please (to buy +아/어/해 주다+세요)
커피 좀 사 주세요 (Please buy me a coffee.)
조용히 (하다 + 아/어/해 주다 + 세요) = please be quiet please (to do+아/어/해 주다+세요)
제가 한국어를 가르쳐 줄까요?” May I teach you Korean?
저한테 한국어 좀 가르쳐 주세요. Please teach me Korean.
When you look at ‘가르쳐 줄까요,’ the verb ‘가르치다 (to teach) is followed by ‘어 주다’ and ‘ㄹ까요.’
When you look at ‘가르쳐 주세요’ verb ‘가르치다 (to teach) is followed by ‘어 주다’ and ‘세요.’ It’s a polite request to teach Korean.
아/어/해 주다 grammar summary
When the vowel is ‘ㅏ’ or ‘ㅗ’ in the stem, ‘아 주다’ is used. So, ‘닫다’ becomes ‘닫아 주다.’
If the vowel is other than ‘ㅏ’ or ‘ㅗ’ in the stem, ‘어 주다’ is used. So ‘열다’ becomes ‘열어 주다.’
하다 becomes 해 주다. So, ‘말하다’ becomes ‘말해 주다.’