아/어지다 is used to express the change over time. It is similar to become or get in English.
Adjective stem + -아/어지다
When the adjective stem of first adjective ends in ㅏ or ㅗ, it is combined with – 아지다. For example-
싸다 (cheap) – 싸지다 (become cheaper)
좋다 (to be good) – 좋아지다 (get better)
높다 (high) – 높아지다 (get higher)
When the adjective stem of first adjective ends in other thanㅏ or ㅗ, it is combined with – 어지다. For example-
적다 (little) – 적어지다 (become little)
길다(Long) – 길어지다 (Become longer)
When the adjective stem of adjective ends in ㅡ, it is combined with – 어지다. For example-
크다 (Big) – 커지다 (Become bigger)
예쁘다(to be beautiful) – 예뻐지다 (Become beautiful)
나쁘다 (to be worse/bad) – 나빠지다 (Become worse)
When the adjective stem of adjective ends in ㅂ, it is combined with – 워지다. For example-
덥다(to be hot) – 더워지다 (Become hotter)
춥다 (to be cold) – 추워지다 (Become cold)
어렵다 (hard/ difficult ) – 어려워지다(Become difficult)
가깝다 (near) – 가까워지다 (become near)
If – 아/어지다 문법 is attached at the end of the adjective stem, it becomes a verb, and it will have a meaning of ‘gradually becoming certain state’.
나으나는 무척 예쁘다. Naun is very pretty.
나으나가 무척 예뻐졌다.(예쁘-어지 었-다)
Naun has become prettier.
Few other examples with these grammatical characteristics are as follows.
크다 to be large’ 커지다 ‘to grow larger’
작다 ‘to be small 작아지다 ‘to become smaller?
길다 ‘to be long’ – 길어지다 “to become longer’
짧다 ‘to be short- 짧아지다 ‘to shorten’
좋다 ‘to be good’ 좋아지다 ‘to become better?
싫다 ‘to be hate’ – 싫지다 to become disgusted’
같다 ‘to be same’ – 같아지다 ‘to become equal
다르다 ‘to be different – 달라지다 ‘to change’
아/어지다 example sentence
당근을 먹으면 시력이 좋아져요. If you eat carrots, the vision gets better. (present tense)
당근을 많이 먹어서 시력이 좋아졌어요. I ate carrots a lot so my vision got better. (Past tense)
살이 빠져서 얼굴이 작아졌어요. I lost weight so my face got smaller.
그 칩은 비싸졌어요. That house became more expensive.
수업 시간이 길어졌어요. The class time got longer.
피자가 맛있어졌어요. The pizza became more delicious.
저는 건강해졌어요. I became more healthier.
내 애인은 날씬해졌어요. My girlfriend became thinner/ slimmer.
엄마는 행복해졌어요. Mom became happier.
Adjective stem + 아/어하다
If 아/어하다 is attached at the end of an adjective stem, it also becomes a verb, and it has a meaning of ‘do certain action’. However, -아/어하다 cannot be attached at the end of every adjective, and mostly, psychological adjectives such as ‘좋다, 슬프다, 기쁘다, 무섭다, 싫다’ are attached and change them into verbs.
나는 바다가 싫다. I dislike sea.
나는 바다를 싫어한다. I dislike sea.
나으나는 예쁘다. Naun is pretty.
어머니는 나으나를 예뻐한다.(예쁘-어하~ㄴ다)
(My) mother likes Naun so much.
When – 하다 is combined with verbal nouns such as 강조 ‘emphasis’, 공부 ‘study’, 공연, ‘performance’, 명상 meditation’, 운동 ‘exercise’, 보호 ‘protection’, it changes them into verbs.
나우나는 한국어를 열심히 공부한다. Minseo studies Korean hard.
건강을 지키기 위해 준서는 매일 운동한다. Jun-Seo exercises every day for keeping his health.