Home grammar 는 동안 grammar, meaning, and rule

는 동안 grammar, meaning, and rule

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는 동안 grammar, meaning, and rule

Noun 동안 expresses the length of time. ‘동안’ is normally used with a time noun. ‘동안’ itself is a noun. So there is a spacing between the preceding noun and ‘동안’. ‘동안’ indicates the length of time from one point to another. (Duration)

는 동안 means while/ during in English. The expression 는 동안 is the combination of 는 and 동안. 는 expresses the present tense or the same tense as the verb that ends the sentence, and 동안 expresses a certain period of time. 는 동안 is used to indicate the duration of an action or condition.

시험을 보는 동안 너무 긴장했어요. I was so nervous, while I was taking the exam.
6월 동안 준비했는데 너무 아쉬워요.” I’ve been preparing the exam for six months so I’m really sad.

시험을 보다 to take an exam) – 보다 (to see) + 는 동안 = 보는 동안.

아들이 자는 동안 한국어를 공부해요.” I study Korean while my son sleeps.
From 7 to 9 Am ‘아이가 자요 ( baby sleeps.)’. At the same time, I study Korean. Two actions occur at the same time. If you want to express this situation into one sentence, then you can connect them by using ‘는 동안’ after 자다. So if you connect two sentences, it becomes 아들이 자는 동안 저는 한국어를 공부해요. ( I study Korean while my son sleeps).
자는 동안 = 자다 (to sleep)’ + ‘는 동안’. The verb stem (자다) does not have the final consonant so ‘는 동안’ is used after that.

저는 책을 읽어요. I read the book.’ And at the same time, 누나는 요리 해요. My sister cooks. Two actions occur at the same time.
If you want to express this situation in one sentence, you can connect them by adding ‘는 동안’ after ‘읽어.’ You can say ‘제가 책을 읽는 동안 누나는 요리 해요.’ My sister cooks food while I read a book.’
읽는 동안 = verb ‘읽다 (to read)’ + ‘는 동안’. The verb stem has the final consonant ‘는 동안’ is used.

는 동안 conjugation

whether a verb stem has final consonant or not, ‘는 동안’ is used in both cases.

verb 먹다 (to eat)
Remove ‘다’ Then, there is the final consonant. Then ‘는 동안’ is used after that. So it becomes 먹는 동안.

verb 자다 (to sleep)
Remove ‘다’, then there is no final consonant. Then ‘는 동안’ is used after that
. So it becomes ‘자는 동안’.

ㄹ final consonant
when the final consonant is ‘ㄹ’, remove ‘ㄹ’. ‘는 동안’ is used after that. For example

verb 만들다 (to make)
Remove ‘다’. Then, there is the final consonant ‘ㄹ.’ Then, delete ‘ㄹ’ and then attach ‘는 동안’. So it becomes ‘만드는 동안’.

verb ‘놀다 (to play)
Remove ‘다’ from ‘놀다’, then there is the final consonant ‘ㄹ.’ Then, delete ‘ㄹ’ and then attach ‘는 동안’. So it becomes ‘노는 동안’.

으면서 vs 동안

Now let’s compare ‘Verb-(으)면서’ to ‘동사-는 동안’ briefly. Please refer to the grammar lesson for ‘Verb-(으)면서‘.

(으)면서 is used When one person is doing two actions simultaneously.

‘는 동안’ is used
1) when one person is doing two actions at the same time or two persons are doing each action at the same time. So when the subject of the preceding and the following sentences are the same, you can use both ‘(으)면서’ and ‘는 동안’. For example-

저는 요리해요. 저는 음악을 들어요.

‘저는 요리하면서 저는 음악을 들어요.’ I listen to music while I cook.
Both sentences have the same subject ‘저는’. In this case, (으)면서’ can be used.

‘는 동안’ is also the same. ‘저는 요리하는 동안 저는 음악을 들어요.’ I listen to music while I cook.
when the subjects of the preceding and the following sentences are the same both 동안 and (으)면서 can be used.

2) When the subjects of the preceding and the following sentences are different, ‘(으)면서’ cannot be used. But ‘는 동안’ can be used. For example-
저는 요리해요. 오빠는 음악을 들어요.
저는 요리하면서 오빠는 음악을 들어요.’ My brother listens to music, while I cook. The subject of the preceding sentence is ‘저는’. And the subject of the following sentence is ‘오빠는.’ The subjects are different. When the subjects are different, ‘(으)면서’ cannot be used. This is a wrong sentence.

Let’s look at ‘는 동안‘.
‘저는 요리하는 동안 오빠는 음악을 들어요.’ My brother listens to music, while I cook. The subject of the preceding sentence is ‘저는’. And the subject of the following sentence is ‘오빠는.’ The subjects are different. ‘는 동안’ can be used when the subjects of the preceding and the following sentences are different.
‘저는 요리하는 동안 오빠는 음악을 들어요.’ My brother listens to music, while I cook.

We’ve briefly compared between ‘Verb-(으)면서’ and ‘Verb-는 동안’. Now let’s practice ‘Verb-는 동안’ by looking at some more examples. Let’s make a sentence using ‘는 동안’.

는 동안 practice

도로에서 걷는 동안 비가 왔어요.’ It rained, while I was walking on the road.
‘걷는 동안’ is a combination of the verb ‘걷다’ and ‘는 동안’.

영국에서 사는 동안 영어를 공부할 거예요.’ I will study English, while I live in England.
Remove the final consonant ‘ㄹ” from the verb ‘살다’, and ‘는 동안’ is attached after that.

기도하는 동안 조용히 좀 해 주세요.’ Please be quiet, while I pray. ( 기도하는 동안’ is a combination of the verb 기도하’ and ‘는 동안’.)
어제 9시간 동안 잤어요. I slept for 9 hours yesterday.
‘방학 동안 뭐 할 거예요?’ What are you going to do during the school vacation? (‘방학 length of school vacation time).

미국을 일주일 동안 여행할 거예요.’ I’m going to travel to the USA for a week.
‘하루 동안 공부를 열심히 했어요.’ I studied hard for a day.
얼마 동안 가려고요?” How long are you going to travel?
휴가가 짧아서 사흘 동안 가려고요.” Because the vacation is short, I’m going there for 3 days.
휴가 동안, 얼마 동안, 사흘 동안 they are all talking about the length of time/ duration of time.
일본어를 얼마 동안 배웠어요? How long have you learned Japanese?
저는 일본어를 2년 동안 배웠어요.” I learned Japanese for two years.

‘동안’is used after the noun ‘얼마’. We don’t know the exact time from when to when. Noun ‘얼마’ indicates an unknown quantity or degree. 동안’ indicates the length of time.

Suppose you learned Japanese from 2020 to 2021. But you want to say 1 year (the length of time) rather than the exact time. So ‘동안’ is used after ‘1년.’ You can say ‘1년 동안’.
“저는 1년 동안 배웠어요.” I learned for one year. There is a spacing between the preceding noun and ‘동안’.

는 동안 Summary

‘V-는 동안’ express the duration of an action or condition. Whether a verb has the final consonant or not, ‘는 동안’ is used in both cases. So, 먹다 becomes 먹는 동안’ and ‘자다’ becomes ‘자는 동안’.

‘1년’ becomes ‘1년 동안’ and ‘얼마’ becomes ‘얼마 동안’.

When the verb stem ends with the final consonant ‘ㄹ,’ delete ‘ㄹ’ and attach ‘는 동안.’ So ‘만들다’ becomes ‘만드는 동안’.

There is one thing that you need to aware when you use ‘는 동안’.

 A tense marker cannot be used before ‘는 동안’, A tense marker is used only in the last clause. For example-

제가 요리 했어요. I cooked food.

오빠는 음악을 들었어요. My brother listened music.

The past expression ‘었’ is used for both sentences. And if I want to connect them using ‘는 동안’. Then, I have to remove the past tense marker ‘었’

제가 요리 하는 동안 오빠는 음악을 들었어요. This is a correct sentence. The tense marker is used only in the last clause.

제가 요리 했는 동안 오빠는 음악을 들었어요. This is a incorrect sentence. The tense marker can not be used in the first clause.

는 동안 grammar

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