고 KOREAN GRAMMAR 5 Best Ways To LEARN

고 Korean grammar particle

고 Korean grammar connecting Particle

Today, we’re going to learn the use of Korean grammar particle 고 (verb 고). 고 Connects two chronological sentences. Let’s start today’s grammar with conversations.

Naun is curious(궁금합니다) about what Minjo did yesterday? So she asked Minjo: What did you do yesterday? 어제 뭐 했어요?

Minjo replied: I had dinner and watched a movie with a friend. 친구하고 밥 먹고 영화 봤어요

What does Minjo did? 민조씨 는 무엇 무엇을 했지요. First, she had rice and then she watched a movie.

Here in this conversation, we learned today’s grammar 고 which is in 먹고 form. Now let’s take a look at the expressive thinking that connects two actions in chronological order.

Verb 고 (동사 고)

고 attaches at the verb stem and it is used to connect two actions that occur one after another. But it is not attached after an adjective that connects two activities.

 

고 Korean grammar Verb Conjugation

Let’s look at some verbs and their joining information

잡다 (To catch)  + 고 = 잡고

먹다 (To eat)  + 고 = 먹고

그리다 (To draw) + 고 = 그리고

 보다 (To see)   + 고 = 보고

자르다 (To cut) + 고 = 자르고

 운동하다 (TO workout) + 고 = 운동하고

 자다 (To sleep)  + 고 = 자고

        We removed 다 from all of these root verbs and joined 고 after these verbs. Some verb stems have consonant and some doesn’t have, we used 고 for all of them. That means verb ending has no role in the use of 고.

 

고 using precautions

   There are three things you should pay attention while using 고. Now let’s see them one by one.

  1. The first one is changing the clause changes the meaning of the sentence also. For example

물을 끓이고 라면을 넣어요. 

Here this sentence says water is boiled (물을 끓이고) first which is the first clause and then put the Ramen (Korean noodle) 라면을 넣어요, which is the second clause.

고 attached two actions 물을 끓이다 and 라면을 넣다 and these two actions have occurred one after another in chronological order. But if we change the clauses of this sentence what would happen?

라면을 넣고 물을 끓여요

First, put the noodles and then boil the water. Meaning of both sentences is totally different here. So we should be aware of changing the clause while using 고.

 

2. If the subjects of the first and second sentences are the same, the second sentence subject can be omitted. (앞뒤 문장의 주어가 동일한 경우에는 뒷 문장 주어를 생략할수 있어요.) For example-

민조는 숙제요.

민조는 영화를 봐요.

What is the subject of two sentences? Both have the same subject that is MInjo 민조.

If we connect two sentences we have to remove the subject of the second sentence and  it becomes

민조는 숙제하고 영화를 봐요 (Minjo did homework and watched a movie)

3. Finally, even if we talk about what happened in the past, we use the past tense only in the following sentence. For example-

I ate rice yesterday. 어제 밥 먹었어요.

I slept yesterday. 잠을 잤어요.

   Both actions occurred yesterday. (모두 어제 일어난 일입니다.) 먹었어요 and 잤어요 both are past tenses. When we combine both sentences with 고 it becomes 어제 밥 먹었고 잠을 잤어요 but according to the rule we have to use past tense only in the following clause or sentence so it finally becomes 어제 밥 먹고 잠을 잤어요. 

(어제 밥 먹었고 잠을 잤어요 가 되는데 여기에서 고 앞에 있는 었 는 지우고 뒤에만 과거 시대 를 사용합니다. 그래서 어제 밥 먹고 잠을 잤어요 가 바른 문장 이에요.)

 

고 Korean grammar Practice

Let’s practice some vocabulary using 고.

일해요

The first word is 일해요. The root form of the verb 일해요 is 일하다. Now let’s remove 다 from the root word, 일하 remains. Now add 고 after that 일하, it becomes 일하고.

일해고 is not correct.

 

마셔요 

The root word of 마셔요 is 마시다. So let’s remove 다 first. 마시 is remaining part, now let’s add 고. The final result is 마시고. 마셔고 is not correct.

 

봐요

마지막으로 봐요.  How to change 봐요? 

The root form of 봐요 is 보다. Then after removing 다. The remaining part is only 보 so after adding 고 it becomes 보고. 봐고 is not correct. Now let’s see some examples

예문

  1.  내일 시험 끝나요. 놀러가요. Tomorrow exam will finish. Go to hang out.

두 문장을 연결하면 어떻게 이야기 할 수 있죠? How to combine two sentences?

내일 시험 끝나고 놀러가요.

 

  1. 저는 운동을 했어요. 저는 집에서 쉬었어요. I did a workout. I took rest at home.

(두 문장을 연결하면)After connecting both words it becomes

저는 운동을 하고 집에서 쉬었어요.

 

How to use 고 Korean grammar

Now let’s see Korean conversation on how to use grammar.

Minjo is asking (민조 씨가 질문합니다): 라면은 어떻게 끓여요? (How to cook Ramen?)

Naeun replies (나은 씨가 대답해요) 물을 끓여요(Boil water). 라면을 넣어요(Put Ramen Noodles). After combining both sentences it becomes

물을 끓이고 라면을 넣어요. (boil the water and put the Ramen.)

이번에는 나은 씨가 민조 씨에게 질문합니다. (This time Naeun asks Minjo) : 주말에 뭐 했어요? (What did you do in the weekend?)

민조씨가 대답해요: 쇼핑 했어요. 커피 마셨어요.

쇼핑 하고 커피 마셨어요. (I did the shopping and drank coffee)

 

고 Korean grammar Summary

Now let’s summarize what we learned today.

고is attached after the verb stem and it is used in chronological order of time.

We took this sentence as an example. 친구하고 밥먹고 영화 봤어요.

We took 3 points as a precaution on using this grammar.

First is if the first clause and the second clause change its place the meaning of that sentence will also change.

Second is when the subject of the first sentence and the second sentence is the same, the subject of the second sentence will be omitted. 

The last one is tense is used only in the latter sentence. It is used after 고 only. (마지막으로 시제는 뒤에 오는 문장에 만 사용합니다).

고 KOREAN GRAMMAR 5 Best Ways To LEARN

고 Korean grammar connecting Particle Today, we’re going to learn the use of Korean grammar particle 고 (verb 고). 고 Connects two chronological sentences. Let

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