고 있다 Korean grammar complete study

고 있다 korean grammar

고 있다 Korean grammar

Today, we’re going to learn ‘V-고 있다 grammar.’ This is a progressive grammar and can be used in all tenses(Past present and future tense.). It has the same meaning as 는 중이다 has. Let’s find out how this grammar is used in a short conversation. 

Naun asks Minjo: “What are you doing now?”

Minjo replies: “I’m reading a book now.”

 Grammar phrases ‘하고 있어요 (is doing), 읽고 있어요 (is reading).’ is used in this conversation.

Let’s find out more about  ‘V-고 있다’ which expresses an action in progress. ‘고 있다’ attaches to the verb stems. It expresses an action is in progress. It’s a progressive tense.

Now let’s look at the combination.

Remove ‘다’ from the basic form of verbs ‘읽다 (to read), and 오다 (to come).’ And add ‘고 있다’ after the verb stems.

‘읽다’ has the final consonant, ‘오다’ does not have the final consonant. Both cases, ‘고 있다’ is used. It means that verb ending has no role in the use of this grammar 고 있다. After that, other endings can be used. For example,

the present tense ending ‘어요

the past tense ending ‘었어요

The future tense ending ‘을 거예요’ can be attached.

So, ‘읽다 (to read) becomes

읽고 있어요 (is reading)

읽고 있었어요 (was reading)

‘읽고 있을 거예요’가 됩니다. (will be reading)

Regarding ‘오다 (to come), it becomes

오고 있어요 (is coming)

오고 있었어요 (was coming)

‘오고 있을 거예요’ 가 됩니다. (will be coming)

In terms of usage, When an action has started at some point in time and when you are still doing that action or when you continue the action, you use ‘V-고 있다.’ For example

‘지금 책을 읽고 있어요.’ (=I’m reading a book now.)

‘읽다 (to read)’ is followed by ‘고 있어요.’

It shows the action ‘reading a book’ is continued.

When the time goes The action ‘reading a book’ has started at some point and the action is still going on 책을 읽고 있어요. (I’m reading a book.)

Let’s look at the second example

‘지금 밖에 비가 오고 있어요.’ (=It’s raining outside. Lit. The rain is coming outside)

‘오다 (=to come) is followed by ‘고 있어요.’

It shows the situation ‘it’s raining’ is still going on

When time goes the rain has started at some point. it shows the situation is still going on.

In that case, you can say ‘비가 오고 있어요 (It’s raining. Lit. The rain is coming.)

고 있다 Usage

Let’s find out the other usages of ‘고 있다.’

‘고 있다’ is used not only when an action is in progress in a certain amount of time but also, it can be used as a regular action (repetitive action). For example, ‘매일 아침 운동하고 있어요.'(=I’m doing exercise every morning.)

Every morning, I do exercise regularly. And when the action is still going on now, you can use ‘고 있다. You can say ‘매일 아침 운동하고 있어요.’ (=I’m doing exercise every morning.)

         Moreover, you can use ‘고 있다’ for continued action. It can be used when the action is in progress for a longer period of time.

예를 들면, For example, ‘지금은 한국에 살고 있어요.’ (=I’m living in Korea now.)

The action (living in Korea) has started at some point, and it is continued for a longer period of time. In that case, you can use ‘고 있다.’ So, you can say ‘한국에 살고 있어요 (=I’m living in Korea.)

고 있다’ also can be used in the present, past and the future.

We’ve looked at the present tense.

When an action is in progress sometimes in the present, you can use 있어요. For example, ‘책을 읽고 있어요 (I’m reading a book.)

In the case of the past tense

when the action was in progress sometimes in the past’고 있었어요’ is used For example, you can say ‘책을 읽고 있었어요.'(=I was reading a book.)

In the case of the future tense

when an action will be in progress sometimes in the future, ‘고 있을 거예요’ is used. So, you can say ‘책을 읽고 있을 거예요 (I will be reading a book.)

고 있다 korean grammar

고 있다 Honoric form

The last one we’re going to look at is ‘고 계시다’ is the honorific form of ‘고 있다.’ Let’s look at the example.

‘저는 책을 읽고 있어요.’ (=I’m reading a book.) This sentence is talking about ‘me’. What if I’m talking about ‘할머니 (=grandmother)”? How would you say it?

‘할머니께서는 책을 읽고 계세요.’ (My grandmother is reading a book.)

Here, you can see ‘계세요’ is used.

Now let’s look at some example sentences. This is the first sentence

지금 밥을 먹다 (Now I, to have a meal)

How would you say it?

지금 밥을 먹고 있어요. (I’m having a meal.)

할아버지께서 주무시다 (My grandfather, to sleep)

How would you say it?

할아버지께서 주무시고 계세요. (=My grandfather is sleeping.)

요즘 한국어를 공부하다. (These days I, to study Korean)

How would you say it?

요즘 한국어를 공부하고 있어요. (These days I’m studying Korean.)

고 있다 grammar conversations

Let’s look at a short conversation.

Minjo asks “아까 전화를 왜 안 받았어요?” (Why didn’t you answer the phone for a while ago?)

Naun replies “그때 시험을 보고 있었어요.” (I was taking an exam at that time.)

This is homework

“여러분은 지금 뭐 하고 있어요?” (“What are you doing now?)

Try to write it by yourself. ‘what you’re doing now’. For example, in my case,

I would write “저는 강의 영상을 만들고 있어요.” (= I’m making a lecture video.) You can write like this.

고 있다 grammar summary

We’ve learned ‘V-고 있다.’

‘고 있다’ is used when an action is in progress

It is combined with verbs, and it cannot be used with adjectives

As examples, we’ve looked at ‘책을 읽고 있어요.’ (I’m reading a book.) and

‘비가 오고 있어요.’ (It’s raining. Lit. The rain is coming.)

‘고 있다’ is also can be used.

when an action takes place regularly and when the action is continued for a longer period of time

We’ve looked at the present, past, future expressions of ‘고 있다.’

Lastly, we’ve looked at ‘고 계시다’ which is the honorific form of ‘고 있다.’